Moreover, the incorporation of additional antigens to the vaccine preparation, such as the envelope protein or immunogenic domains derived from it, may improve the protective immunity induced in vaccinated subjects. Such ideas are Sirolimus research buy presently under investigation and shall contribute for a better understanding of the immunological features of an effective protein-based anti-dengue
vaccine. We are grateful for the technical assistance of L.C. Silva and E.G. Martins. This work was supported by FAPESP, FAPERJ and CNPq grants. “
“Influenza affects an estimated 1 billion people annually worldwide , with up to 5 million cases of severe illness and 500,000 deaths attributable to infection with influenza each year . For epidemiologic and immunologic reasons, children are among the most susceptible to influenza infection and are primarily responsible for transmitting the
illness to others , , , ,  and . Annual influenza vaccination is the principal measure for preventing influenza disease ; however, in many countries, influenza vaccination is not currently recommended for the vast majority of children. A live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV, MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) has been approved for use in many countries KPT-330 chemical structure in eligible children and adolescents 2 years of age and older. The vaccine was originally derived at the University of Michigan by cold adaptation
of an influenza type A strain (A/Ann Arbor/6/60 H2N2) and a type B strain (B/Ann Arbor/1/66) through serial passage at sequentially lower temperatures. During this process, the Ann Arbor strains acquired multiple mutations in genes encoding Resminostat internal nonglycosylated proteins, resulting in master donor viruses with a cold-adapted, temperature-sensitive, and attenuated phenotype. These vaccine strains are updated annually to produce a trivalent vaccine with A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and type B influenza strains with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins that match those of the strains selected for the specific annual formulation. The vaccine is administered as a nasal spray using the Accuspray device (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). Nine randomized, controlled clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of LAIV against culture-confirmed influenza illness compared with placebo or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) , , , , , , , ,  and . A previous meta-analysis of these trials by Rhorer et al.  evaluated the efficacy of LAIV in children in all subjects enrolled, many of whom were 6–23 months of age. Additionally, the meta-analysis by Rhorer et al.