(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Many studies o

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Many studies on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock industries have revealed that livestock production directly contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through enteric fermentation and manure management, which causes negative impacts on animal environment sustainability. In the present study, three essential values for GHG emission were measured; i.e., i) maximum CH4 producing capacity at mesophilic temperature (37 degrees C) from anaerobically stored manure in livestock category (B-0,B-KM, Korean livestock manure for B-0), ii) EF3(s)

value representing an emission factor for direct N2O emissions from manure management system S in the country, kg N2O-N kg N-1, at mesophilic (37 C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) temperatures, this website and iii) N-ex(T) emissions showing annual N excretion for livestock category T, kg N animal(-1) yr 1, from different livestock manure. Static incubation with and without aeration was performed to obtain the N2O and CH4 emissions from each sample, respectively. Chemical compositions of pre- and post- incubated manure were analyzed. Contents of total solids (% TS) and volatile solid (% VS), and the ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) decrease significantly in all BGJ398 mw the samples by C-containing biogas generation,

whereas moisture content (%) and pH increased after incubation. A big difference of total nitrogen content was not observed in pre- and post-incubation during CH4 and N2O emissions. CH4 emissions (g CH4 kg VS-1) from all the three manures (sows, layers and Korean cattle) were different and buy GSI-IX high C/N ratio resulted in high CH4 emission. Similarly, N2O emission was found to be affected by % VS, pH, and temperature. The Box values for sows, layers, and Korean cattle obtained at 37 degrees C are 0.0579, 0.0006, and 0.0828 m(3) CH4 kg VS-1, respectively, whicli are much less than the default values in IPCC guideline (GL) except the

value from Korean cattle. For sows and Korean cattle, N-ex(T) values of 7.67 and 28.19 kg N yr(-1), respectively, are 2.5 fold less than those values in IPCC GL as well. However, N-ex(T) value of layers 0.63 kg N yr(-1) is very similar to the default value of 0.6 kg N yr(-1) in IPCC GLs for National greenhouse gas inventories for countries such as South Korea/Asia. The EF3(S) value obtained at 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C were found to be far less than the default value.”
“2-Aminopurine (2AP) is a fluorescent isomer of adenine and has a fluorescence lifetime of similar to 11 ns in water. It is widely used in biochemical settings as a site-specific fluorescent probe of DNA and RNA structure and base-flipping and -folding.

Surprisingly, at least 10% of the central proteome has no or very

Surprisingly, at least 10% of the central proteome has no or very limited functional annotation.\n\nConclusions: Our data and analysis

Crenigacestat in vitro provide a new and deeper description of the human central proteome compared to previous results thereby extending and complementing our knowledge of commonly expressed human proteins. All the data are made publicly available to help other researchers who, for instance, need to compare or link focused datasets to a common background.”
“Three copolymers of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b ']dithiophene and 3,3′-bis(alkyl)-5,5′-bithiophene (dodecyl, tetradecyl and hexadecyl side chains) have been synthesized through Stille copolymerization. The polymers have number-average molecular weights over 20 kg/mol, are well-packed in the bulk and thin film, and possess an ionization potential of -5.1 eV in thin film, which offers stability versus oxidation in environmental conditions. The thin film packing of the polymer with

dodecyl side chains leads to an excimeric emission upon excitation, which is not observed for longer side chain lengths. The presence of the dimers responsible for this excimer formation results in a device performance improvement as well. Field-effect transistors fabricated from these copolymers have On/Off ratios >10(7), equal saturation and linear hole mobilities above 10(-2) cm(2)/Vs, almost no hysteresis and turn-on voltages Adavosertib supplier around 0 V in bottom-contact devices. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Differences in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) outcomes were explored following changes in ECT administration at our institution. Two changes were introduced: (a) switching the anesthetic agent from propofol to methohexital, and (b) using a more aggressive ECT charge dosing regimen for right unilateral (RUL) electrode placement. Length of stay (LOS) and number of treatments administered per patient were

monitored. A learn more retrospective analysis was performed of two inpatient groups treated on our Mood Disorders Unit: those who underwent ECT in the 12 months prior to the changes (n = 40) and those who underwent treatment in the 12 months after the changes (n = 38). Compared with patients receiving ECT with RUL placement prior to the changes, patients who received RUL ECT after the changes had a significantly shorter inpatient LOS (27.4 versus 18 days, p = 0.028). Treatment efficacy monitored by the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale was not impacted. The change in anesthetic agent and charge dosing each accounted for 11% of the variance in LOS among patients receiving RUL ECT. The implemented changes in ECT administration positively impacted outcome for patients receiving treatment with RUL electrode placement.

Male Sprague-Dawley

rats were trained in daily 1 h sessio

Male Sprague-Dawley

rats were trained in daily 1 h sessions to intravenously self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed-ratio 5 schedule. After establishment of stable nicotine self-administration behavior, the effects of the opioid antagonists were tested. Separate groups ICG-001 of rats were used to test the effects of naloxanazine (selective for mu 1 receptors, 0, 5 and 15 mg/kg), naltrindole (selective for delta receptors, 0, 0.5 and 5 mg/kg), and 5′-guanidinonaltrindole (GNTI, selective for kappa receptors, 0, 0.25 and 1 mg/kg). In each individual drug group, the 3 drug doses were tested by using a within-subject and Latin-Square design. The effects of these antagonists on food self-administering behavior were also examined in the same rats in each respective drug group after retrained for food self-administration. Pretreatment with naloxonazine, but not naltrindole or GNTI, significantly reduced responses on the active lever and correspondingly the number of nicotine

infusions. None of these antagonists changed lever-pressing behavior for food reinforcement. These results indicate that activation of the Selleckchem ACY-241 opioid mu 1, but not the delta or the kappa, receptors is required for the reinforcement of nicotine and suggest that opioid neurotransmission via the mu 1 receptors would be a promising target for the development of opioid ligands for smoking cessation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Poor cognitive control, including reversal learning deficits, selleck has been reported in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, in stimulant-dependent humans, and in animal models

of these disorders; these conditions have each been associated with abnormal catecholaminergic function within the prefrontal cortex.\n\nIn the current studies, we sought to explore how elevations in extracellular catecholamine levels, produced by pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine reuptake proteins, affect behavioral flexibility in rats and monkeys.\n\nAdult male Long-Evans rats and vervet monkeys were trained, respectively, on a four-position discrimination task or a three-choice visual discrimination task. Following systemic administration of pharmacological inhibitors of the dopamine and/or norepinephrine membrane transporters, rats and monkeys were exposed to retention or reversal of acquired discriminations.\n\nIn accordance with our a priori hypothesis, we found that drugs that inhibit norepinephrine transporters, such as methylphenidate, atomoxetine, and desipramine, improved reversal performance in rats and monkeys; this was mainly due to a decrease in the number of perseverative errors.

The mean lesion length was 20 7 +/- 10 3 cm The majority of lesi

The mean lesion length was 20.7 +/- 10.3 cm. The majority of lesions were TASC (TASC I) C Crenolanib chemical structure and D (81.4%). All lesions were pretreated with excimer laser and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) prior to VIABAHN implantation. Technical success was achieved in 100% of cases. There were no MAE at 30 days. Primary patency at 12 months was 48%. The ankle brachial index increased from 0.58 +/- 0.24 at baseline to 0.90 +/- 0.17 at 12 months. There was improvement in all quality-of-life parameters.

The 12-month TLR rate was 17.4%. Conclusions The strategy of excimer laser atherectomy and PTA followed by implantation of a self-expanding stent graft for the treatment of femoropopliteal ISR is safe and associated with high procedural success. Primary patency rate at 12-months was suboptimal; however, the TLR rate was low. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”

prothrombin complex concentrates (aPCC) and recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) are two important therapies in haemophilia patients with inhibitors and improve clot stability. We hypothesized that potential differences in procoagulant and fibrinolytic actions of aPCC and rFVIIa may lie in the clot stability against fibrinolytic activation. We used thrombin generation, fluorescence detection and thromboelastometry in anti-factor IXa (FIXa) aptamer-treated whole GSK2118436 mw blood (WB) and plasma to evaluate: (i) generation of thrombin and activated factor X (FXa) and (ii) viscoelastic properties of blood clots in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) after addition of aPCC (0.4 U mL-1) or rFVIIa (60 nm). Peak thrombin generation increased from 85 +/- 19 nm in aptamer-treated plasma to 276 +/- 83 nm and 119 +/- 22 nm after addition of aPCC and rFVIIa respectively (P < 0.001). FXa activity increased within 20 min by 87 +/- 6% and by 660 +/- 97% after addition of aPCC and rFVIIa respectively (P < 0.001). TPA-induced lysis time increased from 458 +/- 378 s in aptamer-treated WB to 1597

+/- 366 s (P = 0.001) and 1132 +/- 214 s (P = 0.075), after addition of aPCC and rFVIIa respectively. In this haemophilia model using the anti-FIXa aptamer, the larger amount of thrombin was generated with aPCC compared with rFVIIa, while FXa generation SNS-032 cost was more rapidly increased in the presence of rFVIIa. Furthermore, clot formation in anti-FIXa aptamer-treated WB was less susceptible to tPA-induced fibrinolysis after adding aPCC compared with rFVIIa.”
“Sugar cane is widely used in an in natura forage in tropical countries, but the adoption of silage methods facilitates the preservation of its nutritional value and improves the logistics of its use. To explain differences in performance using alternative forages, it is important to conduct studies that evaluate the various digestion sites for the nutrients provided in diets.

Although RUNX1 is not required for the maintenance of hematopoiet

Although RUNX1 is not required for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells, it is required for the homeostasis of hematopoietic KPT-8602 clinical trial stem and progenitor cells, and expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells due to RUNX1 deletion may be an important cause of human leukemias. Molecular abnormalities cooperating with loss of RUNX1 have also been identified. These findings may lead to a further understanding of human leukemias,

and suggest novel molecular targeted therapies in the near future.”
“OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of alendronates on healing of extraction sockets and healing around implants in the maxilla of rats.\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The rats in bisphosphonate group were subcutaneously injected with alendronate (5.0 mg kg(-1)) three times a week for 4 weeks. Both sides of the maxillary first molars were extracted, and customized titanium implants (empty set1.5 x 2.0 mm) were placed immediately into one side. Rats were killed at 3, 7, 14, or 28 days following surgery.\n\nRESULTS: New bone formation in extraction sockets, bone area around the implant site, and bone-implant contact were not delayed

in PP2 order the bisphosphonate group. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive cell count did not differ between bisphosphonate and control groups; however, empty lacunae were observed significantly more in bisphosphonate group. The differences in empty lacunae were shown at different time

points between the implant sites and extraction sites: at 7 days after extraction, and at 14 and 28 days after implantation.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Alendronates seemed to decrease bone resorption but not to decrease bone formation. Empty lacunae were observed significantly more at later time points in implant sites compared to extraction sockets. Oral Diseases (2011) 17, 705-711″
“A right-sided click here aortic arch with an aneurysm of the aberrant subclavian artery is a rare disease. We report a case of Kommerell’s diverticulum of an aberrant left subclavian artery in a patient with a right-sided aortic arch. Fewer than 50 cases have been reported in the literature. A number of operative strategies are described. Right thoracotomy provides good exposure and avoids the morbidity associated with bilateral thoracotomy or sternotomy and thoracotomy. In our patient with symptoms of dysphagia, syncope, and left subclavian steal syndrome, a left thoracotomy was used. The repair was accomplished by division of a left ligamentum arteriosum, obliteration of the Kommerell’s aneurysm, and an aorto-subclavian bypass. Postoperative complications included left vocal cord palsy and Horner’s syndrome. Hoarseness and left ptosis recovered spontaneously 3 months after surgery, and the patient remained symptom-free at the 1-year follow-up. We believe a left thoracotomy for direct repair of Kommerell’s diverticulum is a simple and safe method without the increased morbidity found in other procedures.

ResultsAmong the seven subjects who received treatment, the avera

ResultsAmong the seven subjects who received treatment, the average pain reduction was 75% at the three-month primary end point. These subjects were responders per predefined criterion of achieving 50% pain reduction in 50% of treatment sessions for the three-month GSK1210151A price end point. Pain medication use and interference of pain on functions was significantly reduced. The treatment efficacy was sustained through the follow-up period of up to 12 months. Besides dislodgement and loss of function for one electrode in one subject,

all other devices functioned as intended. No changes of residual motor and sensory function were observed. ConclusionThis pilot study generated preliminary evidence on the efficacy and safety Autophagy Compound Library chemical structure of kilohertz electrical nerve block for postamputation pain, justifying a pivotal study for regulatory approval.”
“The presence of a silencing sequence (the I-allele) in the

gene for the upstream regulator of blood flow, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), is associated with superior endurance performance and its trainability. We tested in a retrospective study with 36 Caucasian men of Swiss descent whether carriers of the ACE I-allele demonstrate a modified adaptive response of energy supply lines in knee extensor muscle, and aerobic fitness, to endurance training based on 6 weeks of supervised bicycle exercise or 6 months of self-regulated running (p value < Bonferroni-corrected 5 %). Body weight related maximal oxygen uptake and capillary density in vastus lateralis muscle before training were 20 and 23 % lower, respectively, in carriers of the I-allele. Bicycle (n = 16) but not running type endurance training (n = 19) increased the volume content of subsarcolemmal mitochondria (2.5-fold) and intramyocellular lipid (2.1-fold). This was specifically Selleckchem LY2835219 amplified in I-allele

carriers after 6 weeks of bicycle exercise. The enhanced adjustment in myocellular organelles of aerobic metabolism with bicycle training corresponded to ACE I-allele dependent upregulation of 23 muscle transcripts during recovery from the bicycle stimulus and with training. The majority of affected transcripts were associated with glucose (i.e. ALDOC, Glut2, LDHC) and lipid metabolism (i.e. ACADL, CPTI, CPTII, LIPE, LPL, FATP, CD36/FAT); all demonstrating an enhanced magnitude of change in carriers of the ACE I-allele. Our observations suggest that local improvements in mitochondrial metabolism, through a novel expression pathway, contribute to the varying trainability in endurance performance between subjects with genetically modified expression of the regulator of vascular tone, ACE.”
“microRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of non-protein-coding small RNAs, which regulate the expression of more than 30% protein-coding genes.

“Background Most people infected with HIV-1 are dually inf

“Background Most people infected with HIV-1 are dually infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. Daily suppression of this herpes virus reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations, but whether it delays HIV-1 disease progression is unknown. We investigated the effect of aciclovir on HIV-1 progression.\n\nMethods In a trial with 14 sites in southern Africa and east Africa, 3381 heterosexual people who were dually infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV-1 were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to aciclovir 400 mg orally twice daily or placebo, and were

followed up for up to 24 months. Eligible participants had CD4 cell counts of 250 cells per mu L or higher and were not taking antiretroviral therapy. We used block randomisation, and patients MK-8931 cell line and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Effect of aciclovir on HIV-1 disease progression was defined by a primary composite endpoint of first occurrence of CD4 cell counts of fewer than 200 cells per mu L, antiretroviral therapy initiation, or non-trauma related death. As an exploratory analysis, we assessed the endpoint of CD4 falling to <350 cells per mu L. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number Selleckchem HIF inhibitor NCT00194519.\n\nFindings At enrolment, the median CD4 cell count was 462 cells per mu L and median HIV-1 plasma RNA

was 4.1 log(10) copies per mu L. Aciclovir reduced risk of HIV-1 disease progression by 16%; 284 participants AZD6244 nmr assigned aciclovir versus 324 assigned placebo reached the primary endpoint (hazard ratio [HR] 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-0.98, p=0.03). In those with CD4 counts >= 350 cells per mu L, aciclovir delayed risk of CD4 cell counts falling to <350 cells per mu L by 19% (0.81, 0.71-0.93, p=0.002).\n\nInterpretation The role of suppression of herpes simplex virus type 2 in reduction of HIV-1 disease progression before initiation of antiretroviral

therapy warrants consideration.”
“Introduction\n\nSentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has progressively replaced complete axillary lymph node dissection in the evaluation of breast cancer patients with clinically node-negative disease. Our study investigates the rate of and risk factors involved in sentinel node identification failure.\n\nMaterials and methods\n\nWe collected data on SLNBs performed during 2002-2010, focusing on tumor, patient, and breast characteristics, radioactivity parameters, and operators’ experience. Data were analyzed by R (v2.14.2), considering significance at P values lower than 0.05.\n\nResults\n\nAmong 1050 women who underwent an SLNB, the rate of identification failure was 2% (23/1050), which, on bivariate analysis, was seen to be significantly influenced (P<0.

“Immune functions of liver natural killer

“Immune functions of liver natural killer selleck chemicals T (NKT) cells induced by the synthetic ligand a-galactosylceramide enhanced age-dependently; hepatic injury and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) induced by ligand-activated NKT cells were also enhanced. This study investigated how aging affects liver innate immunity after common bacteria DNA stimulation. Young (6 weeks) and old (50-60 weeks) C57BL/6 mice were injected with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), and the functions of liver

leukocytes were assessed. A CpG-ODN injection into the old mice remarkably increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production in Kupffer cells, and MODS and Nocodazole mechanism of action lethal shock were induced, both of

which are rarely seen in young mice. Old Kupffer cells showed increased Toll-like receptor-9 expression, and CpG-ODN challenge augmented TNF receptor and Fas-L expression in liver NKT cells. Experiments using mice depleted of natural killer (NK) cells by anti-asialoGM1 antibody (Ab), perforin knockout mice, and mice pretreated with neutralizing interferon (IFN)-gamma Ab demonstrated the important role of liver NK cells in antitumor immunity. The production capacities of old mice for IFN-gamma, IFN-alpha, and perforin were much lower than those of young mice, and the CpG-induced antitumor cytotoxicity of liver NK cells lessened. Lethal shock and MODS greatly decreased in old mice depleted/deficient in TNF, FasL, or NKT cells. However, depletion of NK cells also decreased serum TNF levels and FasL expression of NKT cells, which resulted in improved hepatic injury and survival, suggesting that NK cells are indirectly involved in MODS/lethal shock induced by NKT cells. Neutralization of TNF did not reduce the CpG-induced antitumor effect in the liver. Conclusion: Hepatic injury and MODS mediated by NKT cells via the TNF and FasL-mediated pathway after CpG injection increased, AZD5363 inhibitor but the antitumor activity of liver NK cells

decreased with aging. (HEPATOLOGY 2008;48:1586-1597.)”
“A total of twenty benzo[b]cyclohept[e] [1,4]oxazines and their S-analogs, and 2-aminotropone derivatives were investigated for their cytotoxicity against three human normal cells and four tumor cell lines. These compounds showed moderate tumor-specific cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity was enhanced by bromination at the tropone ring and replacement by formylbenzene. The cytotoxicity of 2-(2-hydroxyanilino) tropone was enhanced by introduction of bromine or isopropyl group to the tropone ring. The presence of a hydroxyl group at ortho or para-position should be necessary for the appearance of cytotoxicity and tumor-specificity.

Methods Systolic, diastolic and mean pressures of three ambulato

Methods. Systolic, diastolic and mean pressures of three ambulatory devices were compared to the average of 1 min of independently recorded, high fidelity intra-arterial reference pressures. Eighteen critically ill patients were recruited. Device performance was required to fulfil GDC-0068 concentration the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) protocol. Additionally, agreement between measurement methods was examined using Bland-Altman plots. Two-level linear

mixed model analyses were undertaken. Results. For each device, 150 paired measurements (arterial reference and device) were analysed. According to the AAMI protocol, no device measured systolic pressures accurately. One device measured diastolic pressures accurately. Integrated mean pressures were accurately measured by all devices. Overall, SunTech Medical’s Oscar 2 performed best with mean pressure error not exceeding 17 mmHg. For this device, Bland-Altman

plots showed Selleckchem Smoothened Agonist uniform agreement across a wide range of mean pressures. Two-level linear mixed effects analyses showed that Oscar 2 mean error reduced during vasopressor use by (-) 3.9 mmHg (95% CI -5.9, -1.9; P < 0.001), and clinically, performance was little affected during mechanical ventilation. For the Oscar 2, there was up to (-) 7.0 mmHg (95% CI -10.3, -3.5; P < 0.001) l ess mean error during hypotension compared to normotension. Conclusions. In the Intensive Care Unit, the performance of one device, the Oscar 2, surpassed the others and fulfilled the AAMI protocol criteria for mean pressure measurement. This device is suitable for prehospital validation.”
“We demonstrate that previous path integral formulations for the general stochastic interpretation generate incomplete results exemplified by the geometric Brownian motion. We thus develop find more a novel path integral formulation for the overdamped Langevin equation with multiplicative noise. The

present path integral leads to the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation, and naturally generates a normalized transition probability in examples. Our result solves the inconsistency of the previous path integral formulations for the general stochastic interpretation, and can have wide applications in chemical and physical stochastic processes. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“A number of 3,9-substituted 6-oxo-1,3,4,6-tetrahydro-2H-pyrido[1,2-a][1,3,5]triazine-7-carbonitriles were synthesized by reaction of 5-R-6-amino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitriles with primary amines and excess formaldehyde.”
“The Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep are two prolific local sheep in China. In this study, the polymorphisms of BMPR-IB (Bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB), BMP-15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) and FSHR (follicle stimulating hormone receptor) were investigated to check whether they are associated with litter size in Small Tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep. Consequently, three polymorphisms, FecB mutation in BMPR-IB (c.

Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role

Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.”
“The present work aimed to study the influence of the meaningfulness of stimuli during global-local processing in schizophrenia. Study participants were asked to determine whether pairs of compound stimuli (global forms composed of local forms) were identical or not. Both global and local forms represented either objects or non-objects. Results indicated that when identification processes were useful for performing the task, similarglobal-local response patterns were observed in patients and controls.

However, patients were more affected than controls when an object was present at a distractor level, particularly when this information came buy LY2157299 from the local level. These results are discussed in terms of the conjunction of executive and visuospatial deficits and underscore the importance of meaningful identification in the visual perception of schizophrenia patients, given its central role in day-to-day situations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. Peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer has

extremely poor clinical outcomes. Recently, we developed a combination chemotherapy that used intraperitoneal (IP) paclitaxel (PTX) and produced excellent antitumor effects against peritoneal lesions. However, no information is available about the benefit of Selonsertib gastrectomy in cases with malignant ascites.\n\nMethods. A total of 64 patients with severe peritoneal metastasis and ascites received IP PTX at 20 mg/m(2) via implanted subcutaneous peritoneal access ports as well as intravenous (IV) PTX at 50 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8. S-1 was administered at 80 mg/m(2) day for 14 selleck compound consecutive days, followed by 7 days of rest. In all patients, investigative laparoscopy was

performed around the combination chemotherapy, and gastrectomy was performed on patients who showed apparent shrinkage of their peritoneal nodules as well as negative peritoneal cytology at the second laparoscopy.\n\nResults. Gastrectomy was performed in 34 patients. The median course of chemotherapy before surgery was 5 courses (range 2-16). R0 operation was achieved in 22 patients (65 %), and grade 2 and 3 histological responses were obtained in 7 (21 %) and 1 (3 %) patient(s), respectively. The median survival time and 1-year overall survival of the gastrectomized patients were 26.4 months and 82 %, and those of the 30 patients who did not receive gastrectomy were 12.1 months and 26 %, respectively. Morbidity was minimal, and there was no mortality.\n\nConclusions. Salvage gastrectomy after chemotherapy of S-1 with IV and IP PTX is promising, even for patients with highly advanced gastric cancer and severe peritoneal metastasis and malignant ascites.