The purified proteins did not present cross-reactivity with sera from dogs infected with Trypanosoma caninum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Cross-reaction was verified with sera from dogs infected with Leishmania brasiliensis (11·7% for rLci2B and 2·9% for rLci1A). Based on ELISA results, it is suggested the use of rLci2B and rLci1A as antigens in an alternative serological assay for diagnostic of canine leishmania. Leishmaniasis
is an endemic disease present in more than selleck chemicals 60 countries worldwide, including Southern Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, Central and South America, and the Indian subcontinent (1). Leishmaniasis comprises a group of diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus that includes cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is provoked mainly by Leishmania chagasi (= syn. DMXAA in vivo Leishmania infantum),
and it is a relevant human disease prevalent in many American countries, including Brazil (2). This form has the greatest potential for lethality and affects 500 000 people worldwide (3). The VL symptoms include fever, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia and hypergammaglobulinaemia (4). Skin pigmentation may also be a feature (kala-azar: black disease). It may be asymptomatic and self-resolving, but usually runs a chronic course and may be fatal if left without treatment (5). The dogs have all the characteristics of a good reservoir: they are present in the domestic and peridomestic environment (6), working as a powerful source for the vector, and they develop
high parasitic skin, allowing (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate a high rate of infection (7). These characteristics are important to maintain the domestic cycle vector-dog-vector-human (6), making diagnosis of L. chagasi infected dogs essential for VL surveillance programs. For the diagnosis of canine VL, the dog epidemiological origin and symptoms should be considered. Parasitological diagnosis based on visualization of the parasite is regarded as a ‘gold standard’ test. In contrast, the serologic diagnosis of VL is based on different methods of antibody detection that include the direct agglutination test, the indirect immunofluorescence test, immunoblotting analysis, the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic tests (8,9). Nowadays, molecular approaches such as screening of Leishmania genes in cDNA libraries promote the identification of different antigens that are targets for vaccine development and diagnostics of leishmaniasis (10). Some protein antigens, lipids and carbohydrates such as GP63 (11), Leishmania-activated C kinase (12), lipophosphoglycan (13), D13 or p80 (14,15), K9 and K26 (16), Leif (Leishmania elongation initiation factor) (17) and protein A2 amastigote-specific (18), among others, present particular characteristics that allow their potential use in diagnosis (19).