All patients were operated at the Academic Medical Center Amsterd

All patients were operated at the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, a tertiary academic referral center. All patients gave informed consent for the procedure. Patients often were examined on multiple visits before consideration of surgical intervention to confirm the persistence of the symptoms and to provide detailed information to each patient regarding the potential risks of the procedure. Data were retrieved from an electronic patient file containing selleck kinase inhibitor structured operation notes and reports of all visits. Operations were performed with the Alcon Accurus or Alcon Constellation machine (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) and a BIOM wide-angle viewing system (Binocular Indirect Ophthalmol Microscope; Oculus Inc,

Wetzlar, Germany). For the Accurus 25-gauge procedures, selleck infusion

pressure was set at 30 mm Hg, vacuum was set at 500 mm Hg, and cutting rate varied between 1000 and 1500 cuts/minute. For the Constellation 25-gauge procedures, infusion pressure was 25 mm Hg, vacuum was 300 mm Hg, and cutting rate varied between 2500 and 5000 cuts/minute. For all 20-gauge procedures, infusion pressure was set at 20 mm Hg and vacuum was set at 300 mm Hg, with cutting rate varying between 1000 and 2500 cuts/minute. If the posterior hyaloid was attached, a PVD always was induced. Vitreous was removed up to the vitreous base. We did not use visualization aids during the PVD induction. Shaving of the vitreous base was performed only around retinal breaks. An extensive internal search was performed in all cases using visualization with the BIOM system and scleral indentation, and the location of retinal breaks were drawn in

the chart. All peripheral lesions that resembled breaks or areas of traction were treated with external cryotherapy. Parameters Ketanserin retrieved were patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative VA, preoperative phakic status, combined phacoemulsification, comorbidity, active PVD induction, intraoperative peripheral retinal breaks or traction areas, application of cryocoagulation, and tamponade type. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software for Windows version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA) for chi-square test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann–Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis analysis. For analysis, VA was converted to logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) values, whereby counting fingers was converted to 1.40 logMAR and hand movements was converted to 2.70 logMAR. A total of 116 eyes from 97 patients were included. All cases had a history of persistent floaters for at least 6 months. Mean follow-up was 10.1 months (range, 3 to 57 months). Mean patient age was 58.7 years (range, 26 to 86 years). Most operations were performed under local anesthesia. General anesthesia was used only in patients who made a specific request. The posterior hyaloid was still attached in 30 (25.9%) cases. In all of these, we actively induced a full PVD.

All other reagents (Merck and Hexapur) and solvents (Nuclear) wer

All other reagents (Merck and Hexapur) and solvents (Nuclear) were of analytical grade. The purple grape juice samples used in this study were from Vitis labrusca grapes, Bordo variety, harvested in 2009. The organic juice was obtained from Ipatasertib solubility dmso the Cooperativa Aecia Agricultores Ecologistas Ltda. (Antonio Prado, RS, Brazil) and was certified by Rede de Agroecologia ECOVIDA, while the conventional

juice was obtained from Vinícola Perini Ltda. (Farroupilha, RS, Brazil). The main characteristics of each grape juice are shown in Table 1. Forty-eight male Wistar rats (90 days old, weighing 250 ± 50 g) from the breeding colony of the Centro Universitário Metodista were used in these experiments. The number of animals was determined by a statistical F test – MANOVA (F = 3.21, α = 0.05, power = 90%). The animals were handled under standard laboratory KU55933 conditions consisting of a 12-h light/dark cycle and fixed temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Food and water were available ad libitum. All experimental procedures were performed in accordance with the Brazilian Society of Neurosciences and Behavior. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Centro Universitário Metodista IPA, number 298/2009. The animals were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 16 per group) as follows: group

1 served as control and received saline, while groups 2 and 3 were given, by gavage, organic or conventional grape juice (10 μL/g of body weight),

respectively, once a day over the course of 17 days. The doses of purple grape juice were determined by calculating the amount of juice consumed on average by a 70-kg human male, i.e., approximately 500 mL/day ( Park et al., 2003). In order to assess if purple grape juices intake could alter the behavioral parameters, the treated rats were evaluated through the open field test. Anxiety, locomotion and exploratory activities were evaluated in the animals following the conclusion of the treatment (day 18). Experiments were carried out between 8:00 a.m. and 13:00 p.m. in a noise-free room. Rats were placed in a wooden box in which the floor was Edoxaban divided by black lines into 12 equal squares. Initially, the rats were placed in the middle of the quadrant and were allowed to explore the box freely for five minutes. The latency to start locomotion, the number of black line crossing, rearing, grooming and fecal bolus during exploration were measured and recorded manually (Holzmann et al., 2011 and Galani and Patel, 2010). After the open field test, half of the rats from each group (n = 8) received a single, intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of PTZ (60 mg/kg of body weight) dissolved in sterile isotonic saline. This dose is between half of the effective dose to cause seizures (33 mg/kg) and the median lethal dose (75 mg/kg) ( Ilhan et al., 2005). The other half of the rats (negative control) received saline solution (i.p.).

Initial therapy consisted of oral hygiene instructions,

Initial therapy consisted of oral hygiene instructions, KPT-330 cost which were repeated until the patient achieved an O’leary plaque score of 20% or below.10 Scaling and root planing of the teeth were performed. Patient was referred to department of conservative dentistry and endodontics for root canal therapy in relation to #35 and #36 teeth (which were symptomatic to the heat test). Four weeks following phase 1 therapy, a periodontal re-evaluation was performed

to confirm the suitability of #36 tooth for this periodontal surgical procedure. Clinical measurements were made using william’s periodontal probe with graduation to a precision of 1 mm. Blood sample was taken on the day of the surgery according to the PRF protocol with a REMI 3000 centrifuge and collection kits. Briefly, 6 ml blood sample was taken from the patient without an anti-coagulant in 10 ml glass test tubes and immediately

centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 12 min. A fibrin clot was formed in the middle of the tube, whereas the upper BMS-907351 solubility dmso part contained acellular plasma, and the bottom part contained red corpuscles. The fibrin clot was easily separated from the lower part of the centrifuged blood. The PRF clot was gently pressed between two sterile dry gauges to obtain a membrane which was later minced and added to the graft material (OSSIFI™) (Fig. 4). An intrasulcular incision was made on buccal and lingual aspect of the tooth of left mandibular teeth (# 35, 36, 37) along with a vertical incision, extending to the muco gingival junction in relation to distal aspect of #35. A full thickness triangular flap was raised and inner surface of the flap was curetted to remove the granulation tissue. Root surfaces were thoroughly planed using hand instruments and ultra sonic scalers. The left mandibular first molar demonstrated mesial intrabony defect after removing granulation tissue

thoroughly, mesial intrabony defect was found to extend in buccal and apical aspect (Fig. 3). Briefly, minced PRF was mixed with alloplast (OSSIFI™) and was applied to the defect walls and root surfaces (Fig. 5 and Fig. 6). The alloplast with PRF was then condensed using amalgam condensers. The flap were Rolziracetam repositioned to their pre surgical levels and sutured with silk utilizing an interrupted technique (Fig. 7). After the operation, the patient was prescribed systemic antibiotics (Amoxicyllin 500 mg tid, 3 days), Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug (combiflam tid, 3 days) and 0.12% chlorhexidine rinse (twice a day for four weeks). Sutures were removed after 7 days. Clinical healing was normal with neither infectious episodes nor untoward clinical symptoms. The patient was seen at 1st week, 2nd week, 1st month, 3rd and 6th month (Fig. 8). Periapical intraoral radiographs were obtained from the periodontal defect site at baseline, 3 months and 6 months after surgery (Fig. 9).

The news section of the website also seemed to be under developme

The news section of the website also seemed to be under development. It encouraged the user to ‘read our press releases’ but did not list any. The site has

a clear help section and detailed information about the people behind the website. There is a list of funders and a link to the funding policy which states that money will not be accepted from pharmaceutical companies or any for-profit organisation with vested interested in the research findings. In summary, this is a very useful website and I encourage readers to visit it and to consider recommending it to colleagues, students, and computer-literate patients. “
“The IPQ-R is an 84-item self-completed instrument developed to provide a quantitative measurement of the components of illness representations, as described by Leventhal’s Common-Sense Model (CSM) of selfregulation OSI906 (Leventhal et al 1984, 1997). It is divided into three sections: identity

subscale (14 symptoms), causal subscale (18 causes), and a third section which contains 7 subscales, including consequences, timeline acute/chronic and cyclical, personal and Selleck Screening Library treatment control/cure, illness coherence, and emotional representations. Researchers are encouraged to adapt the questionnaire wording to the specific illness under investigation by replacing the word illness with the name of the condition under investigation. Instructions to clients and scoring: For the identity subscale, respondents are asked if they have experienced a number of symptoms since their illness, and if they feel the symptoms are related to their current illness. Response is by circling ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to each question. Responses are then summed to give an overall score. For the causal subscale, respondents are asked what they perceive to be the cause of their illness and are asked to respond to each of the listed causes using a 5-point Likert style scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Respondents TCL are also asked to rank the

3 most important factors believed to be the cause of their illness. The third section (7 subscales) is scored by summing responses to each item is on a 5-point Likert style scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. All items for each of the subscales are summed to give an overall score. High scores on the identity, consequences, timeline acute/chronic and cyclical subscales represent strongly held beliefs about the number of symptoms attributed, the negative consequences, and the chronicity and cyclical nature of the illness. High scores on the personal and treatment control and coherence subscales represent positive beliefs about controllability and a personal understanding of the illness. For non-English speaking patients the questionnaire has been translated into a number of languages, including Norwegian, French, and Dutch.

The EACIP submits its deliberations in the form of a proposal or

The EACIP submits its deliberations in the form of a proposal or memorandum to the MOH or the PD-0332991 concentration CCDC. After due consideration, the MOH or the CCDC will disseminate its policy or recommendations as a formal technical guideline. The MOH and CCDC can accept the entirety or just a part of the recommendations made by the EACIP. The main tasks of the EACIP are to advise on the national immunization schedule, to participate in the drafting and review of technical documents, and to provide resource persons in the field supervision and staff training for some specific activities. As noted earlier, China initiated the national EPI in 1978 with the introduction of universal infant vaccination with

BCG, OPV, MV and DTP vaccines. In 2002, China introduced hepatitis B vaccine into the national EPI. In 2007, vaccines against rubella, mumps, meningococcal serotype A and A + C, Japanese encephalitis, and hepatitis A were added to the routine schedule. These changes resulted in an increased number of vaccines requiring appropriate scheduling from both the programme logistics and user perspective. In addition, other improvements were made in the formulation, administration, and dosage of vaccines, e.g., monovalent CX-5461 nmr measles vaccine was replaced by trivalent Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine, and DTP with whole cell pertussis antigen was replaced by acellular DTaP vaccine. The national EPI also expanded beyond children to include adults, with the potential for vaccines for haemorrhagic fever, leptospirosis, and anthrax for specific high-risk populations. The China EACIP has played an important role in the formulation and modification of the immunization schedule to accommodate vaccines it has recommended previously. In 1986, the EACIP suggested modifications to the immunization schedule based on the scientific data and evidence to ensure

maintenance of high coverage, lower program costs, and fewer vaccination visits by implementing more efficient schedules that combined Methisazone multiple immunizations at the same visit. In 2005, the EACIP recommended changes in the two-dose immunization schedule for measles vaccine from 8 months and 7 years to 8 months and 18 months. At the same time a recommendation was made to increase the dose from 0.2 ml to 0.5 ml to improve vaccine effectiveness. The significant expansion of China’s immunization schedule in 2007 was based on a detailed review of the literature and available evidence. The EACIP identified over 16,623 papers and documents related to vaccines against measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal meningitis, Japanese encephalitis, and hepatitis A. Using a systematic review process and meta-analysis, 1550 papers were selected according to pre-defined criteria, and 202 papers were analyzed in detail (Table 1).

In our paper we mainly evaluate the effect of various surveillanc

In our paper we mainly evaluate the effect of various surveillance schemes and the risk of missing infected animals. Based on this evaluation, we consider the risk low if all vaccinated ruminants are sampled and a statistical sample on PLX-4720 all the farms with vaccinated pigs (to detect 5% prevalence with 95% confidence). In non-vaccinated sheep (or other species where clinical signs are often absent) a sample should be taken to detect 1% of the infected herds with 95% confidence and 5% infected animals on those farms with 95% confidence. In this case a

waiting period of 3 months since the last case will be sufficient (N.B. the ambiguity of sampling in Article 56 of the EU Directive should be corrected). If sampling of all vaccinated ruminants is impossible to achieve, then

within and between herd design prevalence rates of less than or equal to 5% and 1% should be used for NSP serosurveys. The risk of missing infected animals is then higher, and a waiting period of six months after the last case should be applied. Follow-up of positive NSP reactors should be performed on a case-by-case approach in which laboratory, epidemiological and other information is used in decision-making. Since an effective control programme is the best guarantee that the threat of FMDV infection has been dealt with, more effort should be directed towards demonstrating this, specifically with more emphasis on demonstrating vaccine effectiveness. Countries using emergency vaccination could undertake a heterologous in vivo vaccine potency test to directly TSA HDAC show the level of protection provided by the vaccine used against challenge with the virus causing the outbreak and to provide serological correlates of protection to calibrate SP serosurveys of the population immunity achieved

by vaccination. Delaying the decision to vaccinate so as to avoid the complications of post-vaccination surveillance will make matters worse if vaccination cannot ultimately be avoided. DJP drafted the initial manuscript following discussions in the OIE Ad Hoc Group for FMD. All to authors reviewed and revised the manuscript and approved the final version as submitted. This work was supported by the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) grant agreement number 226556 (FMD-DISCONVAC). DJP was also funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. We thank colleagues from the OIE’s Ad Hoc Group on FMD and from the European Commission for the Control of FMD for many related discussions. Conflict of interest statement: All authors attest to having no conflicts of interest. AEF was involved in drafting the EU Directive on FMD control. DJP, AEF, WV, KDC are members of the OIE Ad Hoc Group for FMD that advises on revisions of the FMD chapter within the OIE Code.

External cooling was applied throughout the process to keep the t

External cooling was applied throughout the process to keep the temperature below 108 °C and the stirring was continued for 30 minutes after all of the bromine had been added. The precipitate of imino-benzothiazole hydrobromide

was removed by filtration with a pump, dissolved in warm water, and the base was BTK inhibitor price precipitated with alkali. The residue was recrystallized from alcohol or ligroin to yield the derivatives of 2-amino-4-(5-or 6-) substituted benzothiazole (3a–h). To a mixture of phenylacetic acid/4-methoxyphenylacetic acid (0.0073 mol), anisole (0.0088 mol) and 88–93% orthophosphoric acid (0.0088 mol) was added trifluoroacetic anhydride (0.0295) rapidly with vigorous stirring at 25 °C. The mixture turned into a dark colored solution and a vigorous exothermic reaction was observed. The mixture was stirred for 30 min at the same temperature and poured into ice-cold learn more water (50 mL) with stirring, the products appeared as solid and the filtered solid, after washing with cold hexane (2 × 10 mL), was often analytically pure (6a–i). To a solution of (6a–i) (0.2 mol) in chloroform (30 ml) kept at 50 °C was added dropwise bromine (0.22 mol) with stirring. After being stirred at 50 °C for 0.5 h, the mixture was washed successively with aqueous 10% sodium thiosulphate solution and water. The solvent

was removed in vacuo to obtain the compounds (7a–i) either as sold mass/oil crystalline/liquid compounds. A mixture of 2-amino substituted benzothiazole (3a–h) (10 mmol) and an appropriate α-bromo-1-[4′-substituted] phenyl-2-[4″-(un)substituted] phenyl-1-ethanone (7a–i) (10 mmol) in dry ethanol (50 mL) was heated to reflux on a water bath for 6–8 h, phosphorus pentoxide (3 m mol) was added, and refluxing was continued for another 4–6 h. The reaction mixture was cooled DNA ligase overnight at room temperature. Excess of solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the solid hydrobromide separated was filtered, washed with cold ethanol, and dried. Neutralization of hydrobromide salts with cold aqueous solution of Na2CO3 yielded the corresponding free bases (8a–y), which were purified by recrystallization from dry ethanol. This

compound was prepared as per the above mentioned procedure purified and isolated as yellow solid: yield 49.0% mp 208 °C; IR (KBr) vmax 2950, 2834, 1714, 1280, 761 cm−1; 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ ppm; 11 (s, 1H, COOH), 7.34–7.89 (m, 11H, Ar–H), 2.62 (s, 3H, CH3); 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ ppm; 168.3, 157.7, 144.8, 139.7, 137.7, 134.8, 134.3, 133.4, 131.4, 130.6, 130.1, 130.4, 129.7, 129.3, 128.4, 126.6, 125.6, 124.3, 122.4, 22.4; HRMS (EI) m/z calcd for C23H15ClN2O2S: 418.0543; found: 418.0150. This compound was prepared as per the above mentioned procedure purified and isolated as dark yellow solid: yield 78.29% mp 201 °C; IR (KBr) vmax 2950, 2812, 1716, 1320, 745 cm−1; 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ ppm; 11 (s, 1H, COOH), 7.20–7.70 (m, 11H, Ar–H), 3.79 (s, 3H, OCH3); 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ ppm; 168.3, 162.4, 157.3, 144.2, 139.

In 2011 relative to 2003, students reported consuming 0 26 servin

In 2011 relative to 2003, students reported consuming 0.26 serving per day more milk products, while no difference in mean consumption of fruits and vegetables was observed in adjusted models. Adjusted regression analysis also revealed a decrease of 0.20 can or glass per day in SSB consumption, which included a 0.09 can or glass per day decrease in soda consumption. Significant decreases in dietary energy intake along with increases in diet quality as measured by the DQI

were also observed over time. The prevalence of overweight (excluding obesity) remained relatively unchanged at 23.1% in 2003 compared with 22.6% in 2011, whereas the prevalence of obesity increased slightly from 9.8% to 10.9% over the same time period. This study involved a large population-based Integrase inhibitor comparison of grade 5 students in Nova Scotia in 2003 and 2011, which represents the timeframe before

and after the implementation of the NSNP. This policy began influencing Crizotinib research buy changes in school food in Nova Scotia from 2006 with full implementation expected by 2009. As this study observes trends from 2003 to 2011, we can examine population differences before and after policy implementation, although without a comparison group, it is not possible to disentangle any effects of the policy from wider societal changes. Nonetheless, this study provides “real world” evidence of the impact of a population-level (province-wide) intervention to promote healthy eating in schools. Thus far, the majority of research has focused on shorter term (one to three years) nutrition-related changes using an experimental or cross-section design in relation to state or district-wide implementation of a nutrition policy (Jaime and Lock, 2009). As very few studies have assessed changes at a population level (Mullally et al., 2010), our study contributes important population-level context and adds to the limited

evidence of the long-term, organic changes observed following nutrition policy implementation. Similar to other studies, we observed positive trends in diet quality (Cullen and Watson, 2009 and Cullen et al., 2008) and energy intake (Mendoza et al., 2010) following the Levetiracetam implementation of the NSNP, but we did not find statistically significant increases in consumption of vegetables and fruit that have been reported by others. A decline in SSB consumption over the timeframe observed in this study is consistent with other research following the implementation of a school-based nutrition policy (Blum et al., 2008, Johnson et al., 2009 and Jones et al., 2010); however, different from earlier work, we did not differentiate between beverages consumed at home and at school. Typically, school nutrition policies focus on foods available at school, rather than the food provided at home.

org au “
“Worldwide, breast cancer remains the most commonly “
“Worldwide, breast cancer remains the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women.1 Due to advancements in treatment approaches for breast cancer, the 5-year survival rate has improved dramatically, and in Canada is approximately 88%.2 Despite the efficacy of treatment in improving survival, women who have undergone treatment for breast cancer face both acute and chronic impairments in various aspects of physical function as a result of their treatment, which may involve a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy or other targeted biological therapies.3 Physiotherapists have the potential to play Trametinib solubility dmso an important role in cancer care by identifying

and monitoring changes

in physical function during and following breast cancer treatment, and by prescribing interventions to address deficits in physical function. For the purposes of the present review, three main aspects of physical function have been selected: aerobic capacity, muscular fitness of the upper and lower extremities, and mobility. These aspects of physical function were selected because SCH 900776 manufacturer they represent clinically relevant areas of focus for physical therapists, they are commonly assessed in exercise oncology literature, and each has established objective outcome measures available for comparison. Declines in aerobic capacity have been observed during breast cancer treatment, which is likely a combination of the direct and indirect effects of the treatment itself, and associated reduction in physical activity leading to deconditioning.4 Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) – the upper Methisazone limit to the rate of oxygen utilisation, as measured by a cardiopulmonary exercise test – is the gold standard measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness and the capacity for physical work.5 In clinical populations, VO2max may not be achieved during a cardiopulmonary exercise test, so the peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak)

is used instead. VO2peak is associated with all-cause,6 cardiovascular disease-specific7 and 8 and breast cancer-specific9 mortality. A recent cross-sectional study reported that women diagnosed with breast cancer have a VO2peak on average 27% lower than that expected for healthy sedentary women.10 Although VO2peak has a strong association with health outcomes, cardiopulmonary exercise testing requires expensive, specialised equipment and medical supervision for high-risk individuals, thereby limiting its feasibility. A submaximal exercise test, such as a progressive exercise test that is terminated at 85% of age-predicted maximal heart rate or 70% of heart rate reserve, is often a more feasible alternative in clinical practice because it poses less risk and can be done without collection of expired metabolic gases. VO2max can be estimated with a submaximal exercise test.

Dogs from the area surrounding the clinic were used in these stud

Dogs from the area surrounding the clinic were used in these studies. Enrollment of all the dogs in these studies was performed with the owner’s consent. The study was conducted between July, 2001 and June, 2005. The dogs were suspected of CVL based on clinical symptoms including cachexia, alopecia, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, onychogryphosis, and skin lesions. CVL was confirmed by the presence of parasites in bone marrow, lymph node, or spleen

upon examination of Giemsa-stained smears, or after culture of bone marrow or spleen aspirates in 57 of the 59 dogs; CVL was serologically confirmed in the remaining two dogs using two ELISAs, one with recombinant K39 antigen [27] and one with soluble antigens from a lysate of L. infantum promastigotes [28]. Information on the breed and sex of dogs enrolled in the study are shown in Table S1 (Supplementary Data). Fifty-nine pre-screened dogs were enrolled in the study. The dogs were sequentially allocated to one of the following groups in an open fashion, and treatment was started. There were four cohorts in this study: Group 1 (Vaccine) dogs (n = 18) were given four weekly subcutaneous vaccinations with 20 μg of Leish-111f plus 20 μg of MPL in SE; Group 2 (Glucantime)

dogs (n = 15) were given intravenous selleck inhibitor injections of 20 mg/kg/day of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®: Sanofi Aventis, Paris, France) daily for 30 days; Group 3 (Vaccine + Glucantime) dogs (n = 13) were given both vaccine and Glucantime injections following the same schedule/dose as for groups 1 and 2, respectively;

and Group 4 (Control) dogs (n = 13) were given no treatment. Leish-111f protein was produced at the through Infectious Disease Research Institute (Seattle, WA) as previously described [22], MPL-SE was obtained from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (Rixensart, Belgium), and Glucantime was provided by the Bahia State health department. The dogs were followed for a mean interval of 36 months. Dogs in groups 1, 2 and 3 were kept in the clinic during the entire treatment period, and then returned to their owners. The dogs received no additional protection or treatment in the clinic or in the care of their owners other than normal clinical care and standard immunizations. To reduce the chance of spreading disease in Monte Gordo, the group 4 Control dogs were donated to the clinic by their owners and kept in kennels outside the sand fly transmission area. Although seven dogs out of 13 in this control group were still alive after 6 months, all of them showed unimproved symptoms of leishmaniasis. Those dogs were withdrawn from the study at that time and started on a course of chemotherapy. Six months after beginning treatment, dogs were classified as either “initial clinical improvement” or “no improvement” based on qualitative improvement of skin lesions and general health status (weight gain and regained strength).