No differences between patients and controls were found in the ra

No differences between patients and controls were found in the rate of DNA repair or in cell cycle distribution. Conclusions. The significant differences in DNA damage response signalling observed involve modification of histone variant H2AX and thereby implicate regulatory processes determining chromatin structure in dividing

lymphoblasts from patients with schizophrenia. The role that aberrant DNA damage response signalling plays in protecting patients selleck screening library from cancer is unclear.”
“OBJECTIVE: To summarize Cochrane reviews of acupuncture for neurological disorders, and characteristics of included reviews and studies.\n\nDATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of the Cochrane Library (Issue 7 of 12, July 2010) was performed with the key word “acupuncture” and systematic evaluations for acupuncture for neurological disorders were screened.\n\nSTUDY SELECTION: Systematic reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders were included, and the characteristics of these reviews were analyzed based on methods recommended by the Cochrane collaboration.\n\nMAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Basic characteristics, methodological quality, main reasons for excluding

Proteasome inhibitor trials, results and conclusions of Cochrane reviews were assessed.\n\nRESULTS: A total of 18 Cochrane systematic reviews were included, including 13 completed reviews and five research protocols. The 13 completed reviews involved 111 randomized controlled trials,

including 43 trials (38.7%) conducted in China, 47 trials (42.3%) using sham-acupuncture or placebo as control, 15 trials (13.5%) with relatively high quality, 91 trials (81.9%) reporting data on follow-up. Primary outcomes used in the Cochrane reviews were reported by 65 trials (58.6%), and adverse events were reported in 11 trials (9.9%). Two hundred and eighty three trials were excluded. Two reviews on headache suggested that acupuncture is a valuable non-drug treatment for patients with chronic or recurrent headache, and has better curative effects on migraine compared PCI-34051 cost with preventative drug treatment.\n\nCONCLUSION: Of the Cochrane reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders, two reviews evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture in treating headaches drew positive conculsions, while other reviews did not obtain positive conclusions due to a small sample size or low methodological quality. The methodological quality of acupuncture trials needs further improvement.”
“Introduction: Although recent health care reforms will expand insurance coverage for U. S. children, disparities regarding access to pediatric care persist, even among the insured. We investigated the separate and combined effects of having health insurance and a usual source of care (USC) on children’s receipt of health care services.

(C) 2014 Elsevier GmbH All rights reserved “
“We and others

(C) 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“We and others have identified FGFR4 as a direct transcriptional target of the alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) specific fusion protein, PAX3-FOXO1. We hypothesized fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) may act as an effector of PAX3-FOXO1, contributing to PAX3-FOXO1 tumorigenic phenotypes. However, we demonstrate that VX-661 enhanced expression of FGFR4 does not contribute to inhibited differentiation, enhanced proliferation, or transformation downstream of PAX3-FOXO1

in primary mouse myoblasts. Therefore we were unable to identify any contribution of up regulation of wild type FGFR4 to PAX3-FOXO1 driven tumorigenesis. Conversely, a constitutively active mutant of FGFR4 can enhance Cell Cycle inhibitor primary myoblast proliferation and transformation, indicating activating mutations of FGFR4 could contribute to the development and progression of ARMS. We sequenced the FGFR4 mRNA from five ARMS cell lines and identified no somatic mutations,

nor any association with any human single nucleotide polymorphism within the FGFR4 coding region. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“The present study was designed to assess the synergistic antitumor effects of anthracenylmethyl homospermidine (ANTMHspd), a novel polyamine conjugate, with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and to elucidate the mechanism of these effects on human leukemia HL60 cells. Cell proliferation was assessed by the MTT assay. Cell cycle, apoptosis and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) were evaluated by flow cytometry. Caspases and cytochrome c were detected by Western Blot analysis. The combination treatment strongly inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and caused an accumulation

in the G(1) phase with an accompaniment decrease in S phase. Moreover, reduction of MMP, release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 but not caspase-8 were observed during the combination-mediated apoptosis. All these findings demonstrated that the combination treatment with DFMO and ANTMHspd resulted in synergistic antitumor effects on HL60 cells. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Lentinula edodes, known as shiitake, has been utilized as food, as well as, in popular medicine, moreover, compounds isolated from its mycelium NVP-HSP990 and fruiting body have shown several therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral activity of aqueous (AqE) and ethanol (EtOHE) extracts and polysaccharide (LeP) from Lentinula edodes in the replication of poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1).\n\nMethods: The time-of-addition assay was performed at the times -2, -1, 0, 1 and 2 h of the infection. The virucidal activity and the inhibition of viral adsorption were also evaluated. Plaque assay was used to monitor antiviral activity throughout.

Methods: Data on infection control policies, structural chara

\n\nMethods: Data on infection control policies, structural characteristics, and MDRO

rates were collected through a 2010 survey of California infection control departments. Bivariate and multivariable Poisson and negative binomial regressions were conducted.\n\nResults: One hundred eighty hospitals provided data (response rate, 54%). Targeted MRSA screening upon admission was reported by the majority of hospitals (87%). The majority of hospitals implemented contact precautions for confirmed MDRO and C difficile patients; presumptive isolation/contact precautions for patients with pending screens were less frequently implemented. Few infection control policies were associated with Selleckchem Crenolanib lower MDRO rates. Hospitals with a certified infection control director had significantly lower rates of MRSA bloodstream infections (P < .05).\n\nConclusion: Although most California hospitals are involved in activities to decrease MDRO, there is variation in specific activities utilized with the most focus placed on MRSA. This study

highlights the importance of certification and its significant impact on infection rates. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. Copyright (C) 2012 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Turfgrass systems represent one major group of intensively managed ecosystems and a potential carbon (C) sink. Turfgrass management practices critically influence C inputs to soil, soil microbial dynamics, and in turn soil C and nitrogen (N) balance. However, how management practices influence soil organic C and microbial dynamics in turfgrass systems is not well understood. We investigated the effect of management duration and intensities on soil microbial biomass, microbial

activities and soil organic C contents in two golf courses dominated by Bermuda grass near Raleigh, NC, USA. In Hope Valley, two fairways were studied under the same management scheme but for a huge difference in duration (10 vs. 80 years). Whereas, in Treyburn, rough, fairway, and tee areas that were constructed in the same year but received different N and water inputs, and with different cutting frequencies were examined. Results showed conversion of a pine forest to turfgrass course reduced soil microbial biomass, microbial activities and soil organic C. Long term turfgrass planting accumulated soil organic C and N at rates of 71.9 and 10.6 g m(-2) y(-1) over 80 years. Moderate management intensity resulted in highest soil organic C and microbial biomass C.

Very similar structures are obtained when the organic cation is N

Very similar structures are obtained when the organic cation is NMe4+, NMe2Pr2+, or NMe2Bu2+. A distorted anionic structure possessing the same connectivity is generated when the cation is NEt4+, and anionic frameworks with a different connectivity, but still related to

PtS, are obtained when the much larger quaternary phosphonium cations are employed. Of interest in the structures containing quaternary phosphonium cations are pi-stacking interactions involving phenyl groups of the cation and F(4)TCNQ(2-) ligands. These face-to-face interactions between the electron-rich F(4)TCNQ(2-) ligands and a Milciclib phenyl group of the cation appear to be responsible for the color exhibited by these compounds.”
“Aim:\n\nThis study was undertaken to determine if the need for red cell blood transfusion in placenta praevia could be predicted.\n\nMethods:\n\nData from a retrospective observational study of 246 obstetric patients, with placenta praevia, from 1999 to 2005 were analysed to generate a model to predict requirement for transfusion.\n\nResults:\n\nSeventy-one

patients were transfused. Independent risk factors for transfusion were gestational age at delivery of 32-35 weeks [odds ratio (OR): 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-6.4] and caesarean combined with hysterectomy (OR: 29.4; 95% CI: 5.9-145.9; P < 0.001). No independent risk of transfusion was associated with

maternal age, race, Selleck Ulixertinib Selleckchem Fer-1 parity, smoking status, type of anaesthesia, caesarean combined with arterial balloon occlusion, grade of placenta, accreta and previous uterine surgery.\n\nConclusions:\n\nGestational age at delivery and type of surgery required are predictors of transfusion during caesarean for placenta praevia. Arterial balloon occlusion does not appear to increase transfusion risk and may be considered as one of the techniques in management.”
“Aim: To evaluate the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in Chinese nonsmokers with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Methods: We sequenced exons 18-21 of the EGFR gene in 98 cases. The patients were divided into two groups based on their pretreatment serum CEA levels (below or above 5 ng/mL) for analyzing the correlations with EGFR mutations. Results: Sixty-seven cases harbored EGFR mutations. The rates of EGFR mutations and exon 19 mutations in the high-CEA group (78.2% and 49.1%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the low-CEA group (55.8% and 20.9%, respectively). Serum CEA levels were found to be the only independent predictor of EGFR mutation (OR 2.837; 95% CI: 1.178-6.829) and exon 19 mutation (OR 3.618; 95% CI: 1.319-9.918).

We observed concurrent transcriptional changes in the skeletal mu

We observed concurrent transcriptional changes in the skeletal muscle tissue and the liver. In the skeletal muscle tissue, the glycogen synthesis-related gene pp-1 and GLUT4 were up-regulated in mice selleck receiving HY8101 treatment. In the liver, the hepatic gluconeogenesis-regulated genes (PCK1 and G6PC) were down-regulated in mice receiving HY8101 treatment. Conclusions: Bifidobacterium lactis

HY8101 can be used to moderate glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in mice and in cells. Significance and Impact of the Study: Bifidobacterium lactis HY8101 might have potential as a probiotic candidate for alleviating metabolic syndromes such as diabetes.”
“Supine subjects exposed to hypergravity show a marked arterial desaturation. Previous work from our laboratory Selleck 5-Fluoracil has also shown a paradoxical reduction of lung perfusion in dependent lung regions in supine subjects exposed to hypergravity. We reasoned that the increased lung weight during hypergravity caused either direct compression of the blood vessels in the dependent lung tissue or that poor regional ventilation caused reduced perfusion through hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of HPV through measurements of arterial oxygenation

during exposure to hypergravity with normal and attenuated HPV. A further increased arterial desaturation during hypergravity with attenuated HPV would support the hypothesis that HPV contributes to the paradoxical redistribution of regional perfusion. In a two-phased randomized

study we first exposed 12 healthy subjects to 5 G while supine during two single-blinded conditions; control and after 50 mg sildenafil p.o.. In a second phase, 12 supine subjects were exposed to 5 G during three single-blinded conditions; control, after 100 mg sildenafil BMS-777607 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor p.o. and after inhalation of 10 mu g iloprost. There was a substantial arterial desaturation by 5-30% units in all subjects with no or only minor differences between conditions. The results speak against HPV as a principal mechanism for the hypergravity-induced reduction of lung perfusion in dependent lung regions in supine humans.”
“The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD) include “positive” lesions such as amyloid plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, neurofibrillary tangles, and glial responses, and “negative” lesions such as neuronal and synaptic loss. Despite their inherently cross-sectional nature, postmortem studies have enabled the staging of the progression of both amyloid and tangle pathologies, and, consequently, the development of diagnostic criteria that are now used worldwide.

The patient had begun skiing and hiking again The combination

The patient had begun skiing and hiking again.\n\nThe combination

of fractures of the neck of the femur and of the posterior wall of the acetabulum hampers closed reduction of a posterior dislocation of the hip. Surgical dislocation of the hip with trochanteric flip osteotomy allows controlled open reduction of the fractures, with inspection of the hip joint and preservation of the vascular supply.”
“[Purpose] This study examined the quality of life (QOL) of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 21 homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients who were 65 years old or over and required care for daily living (12 males and 9 females, average age: 79.3 +/- 8.4 years old). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) was used for the activities of

daily selleck kinase inhibitor living (ADL) assessment, and the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, Japanese version 1.2) was used for the QOL assessment. [Results] No correlations were observed between the QOL of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients and their selleck chemicals llc age and gender. However, the results showed that their QOL was affected by their independence in ADL, bedridden degree, and care-need level. [Conclusion] These results suggest that in order to improve the QOL of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients, ongoing rehabilitation to improve independence in ADL and lower

the bedridden degree and care-need level is required.”
“We aimed to determine the duration of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) in patients with clinical infection caused by an EPE, to study host strains Selleck AZD6094 during carriage, and to identify factors associated with prolonged carriage. Patients (n = 61) were followed with faecal samples and questionnaires about antimicrobial treatment and risk factors for EPE, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after EPE infection. The EPE isolates were subjected to ESBL genotyping, epidemiological typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR-based replicon typing. Escherichia coli isolates were analysed with PCR for phylogrouping, detection of pabB (ST131) and virulence content. Patient-related and strain-related variables were compared for carriers and non-carriers at 12 months. Carriage of EPE was observed in 51 of 61 (84%) patients after 1 month, 36 of 61 (66%) after 3 months, 31 of 61 (55%) after 6 months and 26 of 61 (43%) after 12 months. Of the 26 carriers at 12 months, five had previous negative samples. In 17 of 61 patients, ESBL was found in a new bacterial species and/or strain during carriage. Among E. coli, 14 of 49 belonged to the international clone ST131. Phylogroup B2 and CTX-M-gr.-9 were associated with being carriers at 12 months (OR 4.

We applied protein-complex purification strategies and identified

We applied protein-complex purification strategies and identified PRAME as a substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin2-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. PRAME can be recruited to DNA in vitro, and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that PRAME is specifically enriched at transcriptionally active promoters that are also bound by NFY and at enhancers. Our results are consistent with

a role for the PRAME ubiquitin ligase complex in NFY-mediated transcriptional regulation. The EMBO Journal (2011) 30, 3786-3798. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2011.262; Published online 5 August 2011″
“BACKGROUND. Active surveillance followed by selective treatment for men who have evidence of disease progression may be an option for select patients with early-stage prostate cancer. In this article, the authors report their experience in a contemporary cohort of men with prostate cancer who selleck chemicals were managed with active surveillance.\n\nMETHODS. All men who were managed initially with active surveillance were identified through the authors’ institutional database. Selection criteria for active surveillance included: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 ng/mL, biopsy Gleason sum <= 6 with no pattern 4 or 5, cancer involvement of <33% of biopsy cores, and clinical stage T1/T2a tumor.

Patients were followed with PSA measurements and digital rectal examination every 3 to 6 months and with transrectal ultrasound at 6- to 12-month intervals. Beginning in 2003, selleckchem patients also underwent repeat prostate biopsy at 12 to 24 months. The primary outcome measured was active treatment. Evidence of disease progression, defined as an increase in rebiopsy Gleason sum or significant PSA velocity changes (>0.75

ng/mL per year), was a secondary outcome. Chi-square and log-rank tests were used to compare groups. The association between clinical characteristics and receipt of active treatment was analyzed by using Cox proportional hazards regression.\n\nRESULTS. Three hundred twenty-one men (mean age [+/- standard deviation]: 63.4 +/- 8.5 years) selected active surveillance as their initial management. The overall median follow-up was 3.6 years (range, 1-17 years). check details The initial mean PSA level was 6.5 +/- 3.9 ng/mL. One hundred twenty men (37%) met at least I criterion for progression. Overall, 38% of men had higher grade on repeat biopsy, and 26% of men had a PSA velocity >0.75 ng/mL per year. Seventy-eight men (24%) received secondary treatment at a median 3 years (range, 1-17 years) after diagnosis. Approximately 13% of patients with no disease progression elected to obtain treatment. PSA density at diagnosis and rise in Gleason score on repeat biopsy were associated significantly with receipt of secondary treatment. The disease-specific survival rate was 100%.\n\nCONCLUSIONS.

The above-mentioned data suggest that let-7b/i inhibit the invasi

The above-mentioned data suggest that let-7b/i inhibit the invasive ability selleck screening library of glioma cells by directly downregulating IKBKE and indirectly upregulating E-cadherin. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Space-use patterns are crucial to understanding the ecology, evolution, and conservation of primates, but detailed ranging data are scarce for many species, especially those in Southeast Asia. Researchers studying site fidelity to either home ranges or core areas have focused mainly on territorial

species, whereas less information is available for non-territorial species. We analyzed the ranging patterns and site fidelity of one wild troop of northern pigtailed macaques over 16 months at different temporal scales. We used characteristic hull polygons in combination with spatial statistics to estimate home ranges and core areas. The total home range and core areas were 449ha and 190ha, respectively. Average daily path length was 2,246m. The macaques showed a high defendability index according to the expected

ranging of a non-territorial species in which movement does not theoretically permit the defense of a large selleck products territory. Overall, the study troop ranged more extensively than conspecific groups and closely related species studied elsewhere. These differences may reflect variable troop size, degree of terrestriality and habitat characteristics, but could also reflect methodological differences. The location, size and shape of home ranges and core areas, and

extent of daily path lengths changed on a monthly basis resulting in low site fidelity between months. The macaques also showed clear shifts in the location of daily home ranges with low site fidelity scores between consecutive days. Daily home range and daily path length were related to seasonality, with greater values during the fruit-abundant period. Low site fidelity associated with lack of territoriality is consistent with macaques structuring their movement based on available food sources. However, ranging patterns and site fidelity can also be explained by macaques feeding on the move, a foraging strategy that BIIB057 research buy hinders frequent and long visits to the same location. Am. J. Primatol. 77:841-853, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) was recently introduced into neonatal intensive care in the United States. We evaluated whether aEEG has changed clinical care for neonates with seizures. This study included all 202 neonates treated for seizures at our hospital from 2002-2007. Neonates monitored with aEEG (n = 67) were compared with contemporary control neonates who were not monitored, despite the availability of aEEG (n = 57), and a historic control group of neonates treated for seizures before our neonatal intensive care unit initiated aEEG (n = 78).

6% of the theoretical ethanol concentration produced from 20 g/l

6% of the theoretical ethanol concentration produced from 20 g/l barley beta-glucan. These results; showed that sake yeast displaying A. oryzae cellulolytic enzymes can be used to produce ethanol from cellulosic materials. Our constructs have higher ethanol production potential than the laboratory constructs previously reported.”
“Reninangiotensinaldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are well established for the reduction in cardiovascular morbidity, but their impact on all-cause mortality in hypertensive selleck products patients is uncertain. Our objective was to analyse the effects of RAAS inhibitors as a class of drugs, as well as of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AT1 receptor

blockers (ARBs) separately, on all-cause mortality.\n\nWe performed a pooled analysis of 20 cardiovascular morbiditymortality trials. In each trial at least two-thirds of the patients had to be diagnosed with hypertension, according to the trial-specific definition, and randomized to treatment with an RAAS inhibitor or control treatment. this website The cohort included 158 998 patients (71 401 RAAS inhibitor; 87 597 control). The incidence of all-cause death was 20.9

and 23.3 per 1000 patient-years in patients randomized to RAAS inhibition and controls, respectively. Overall, RAAS inhibition was associated with a 5 reduction in all-cause mortality (HR: 0.95, 95 CI: 0.911.00, P 0.032), and a 7 reduction in cardiovascular mortality (HR: 0.93, 95 CI: 0.880.99, P 0.018). The observed treatment effect resulted entirely from the class of ACE inhibitors, which were associated with a significant

10 reduction in all-cause mortality (HR: 0.90, 95 CI: 0.840.97, P 0.004), whereas no mortality reduction could be demonstrated with ARB treatment (HR: 0.99, 95 CI: 0.941.04, P 0.683). This difference in treatment effect between ACE inhibitors and ARBs on all-cause mortality was statistically significant (P-value for heterogeneity 0.036).\n\nIn patients with hypertension, treatment with an ACE inhibitor results in a significant further reduction in all-cause mortality. Because of the high prevalence KU-57788 nmr of hypertension, the widespread use of ACE inhibitors may result in an important gain in lives saved.”
“Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are versatile engines of bioactive natural product biosynthesis that function according to the multiple carrier thiotemplate mechanism. C-terminal thioesterase (TE) domains of these giant modular proteins typically catalyze product release by hydrolysis or macrocyclization. We now report an unprecedented, dual-function TE that is involved in the biosynthesis of nocardicin A, which is the paradigm monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic. Contrary to our expectation, a stereodefined series of potential peptide substrates for the nocardicin TE domain failed to undergo hydrolysis. The stringent discrimination against peptide intermediates was overcome by prior monocyclic beta-lactam formation at an L-seryl site.

Objective: to undertake an economic evaluation of Australian supp

Objective: to undertake an economic evaluation of Australian support for the expansion of basic Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course in the PNG border area of the South Fly from the current level of 14% coverage. Methods: MK-4827 Both cost utility analysis and cost-benefit analysis were applied to models that allow for population movement across regions with different characteristics of tuberculosis burden, transmission,

and access to treatment. Cost benefit data were drawn primarily from estimates published by the World Health Organization, and disease transmission data were drawn from a previously published model. Results: Investing $16 million to increase basic Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course coverage in the South Fly generates a net present value of roughly $74 million for Australia (discounted 2005 dollars). The cost per disabilityadjusted Vorinostat life-year

averted and quality-adjusted life-year saved for PNG is $7 and $4.6, respectively. Conclusions: Where regions with major disparities in tuberculosis burden and health system resourcing are connected through population movements, investments in tuberculosis control are of mutual benefit, resulting in net health and economic gains on both sides of the border. These findings are likely to inform the case for appropriate investment in tuberculosis control globally.”
“Motivation: With rapidly increasing volumes of biological sequence data the functional analysis of new sequences in terms of similarities to known protein families challenges classical bioinformatics. Results: The ultrafast protein classification (UProC) toolbox implements a novel algorithm selleck chemicals (‘Mosaic Matching’) for large-scale sequence analysis. UProC is by three orders of magnitude faster than profile-based methods and in a metagenome simulation study achieved up to 80% higher sensitivity on unassembled

100 bp reads.”
“The requirement of a metalloprotease, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) for the growth of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells has been demonstrated in vitro. However, whether this metalloprotease is responsible for vascular remodeling in vivo remains unanswered. Rat carotid arteries were analyzed 2 weeks after a balloon angioplasty. The neointimal cells were strongly positive for ADAM17 immunostaining. Marked inhibition of intimal hyperplasia was observed in a dominant-negative ADAM17 adenovirus-treated carotid artery. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells and phospho-epidermal growth factor receptor-positive cells in the neointima were reduced by dominant-negative ADAM17 as well. In contrast, the neointima formation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells, and phospho-epidermal growth factor receptor-positive cells were markedly enhanced by wild-type ADAM17 adenovirus.