This article details a global, geometric approach that performs the alignment of the exhaustive sulcal imprints (cortical folding patterns) across individuals. This DIffeomorphic Sulcal-based COrtical (DISCO) technique proceeds to
the automatic extraction, identification NVP-BSK805 manufacturer and simplification of sulcal features from T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) series. These features are then used as control measures for fully-3-D diffeomorphic deformations. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations show that DISCO correctly aligns the sulcal folds and gray and white matter volumes across individuals. The comparison with a recent, iconic diffeomorphic approach (DARTEL) highlights how the absence of explicit cortical landmarks may lead to the misalignment BVD-523 chemical structure of cortical sulci. We also feature DISCO in the automatic design of an empirical sulcal template from group data. We also demonstrate how DISCO can efficiently be combined with an image-based deformation (DARTEL) to further improve the consistency and accuracy of alignment performances. Finally, we illustrate how the optimized alignment of cortical folds across subjects improves sensitivity in the detection of functional activations in a group-level analysis of neuroimaging data.”
“Functional innate immune assessments,
including phagocytosis and respiratory burst, are at the forefront of immunotoxicology evaluation in pre-clinical animal species. Although in the clinic and in academic science, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst assessments have been reported for over two decades, the implementation of phagocytosis and respiratory burst analyses in toxicology safety programs is just recently gaining publicity. Discussed herein are general methods, both microtiter plate-based and flow cytometric-based, for assessing phagocytosis and respiratory burst in pre-clinical species including mouse, rat, dog, and monkey. This methods-centric discussion
includes a review of technologies and descriptions of method applications, with examples of results from analyses testing reported inhibitors Baf-A1 purchase (rottlerin, wortmannin, and SB203580) of phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Justification of implementation, strategic experimental design planning, and feasibility aspects of evaluating test article effects on phagocytosis and respiratory burst function are described within the context of a case study. The case study involves investigation of the effects of a small molecule p38 kinase inhibitor, BMS-582949, on phagocytosis and respiratory burst functions in rat and monkey neutrophils and monocytes in vitro, as well as ex vivo in these innate immune cells from monkeys administered BMS-582949 during a 1-week repeat dose investigative study. The results of the in vitro and ex vivo assessments demonstrated that BMS-582949 inhibited phagocytosis and respiratory burst.