Interestingly, members of the Burkholderia

cepacia comple

Interestingly, members of the Burkholderia

cepacia complex that are inherently resistant to high concentrations of polymyxin B constitutively modify their lipopolysaccharide with l-Ara4N, and this modification is essential for cell viability (Loutet & Valvano, 2011). In contrast, Franscisella novicida uses a different strategy to resist polymyxin B; the lipid A phosphatase LpxF removes the phosphate group at the 4′-position of lipid A (Wang et al., 2007). PmrC and CptA are phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) transferases that mediate the addition of pEtN to the 1 and 4′ phosphates of lipid A and to the phosphate of heptose 1 found in the lipopolysaccharide core, respectively (Gunn, 2008). Although these modifications have been shown to have a modest effect on S. Typhimurium resistance to polymyxin B, addition of pEtN to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis lipid A greatly increased resistance to polymyxin B, LL-37, and protegrin (Tzeng et al., 2005; Lewis et al., 2009). Bacterial transporters are divided into importers and exporters belonging to different this website families (Davidson et al., 2008). Members of the ABC transporter and the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux pump families have been implicated

in AMP resistance. ABC importers, which usually rely on a periplasmic-binding protein, are believed to import AMPs from the periplasm or the periplasm–inner membrane interface into the cytosol, where they are most likely proteolytically 5-Fluoracil in vivo degraded and recycled as nutrients (Fig. 1d). In contrast, exporters of the RND family are thought to export AMPs from the intracellular environment

into the extracellular environment. It appears most likely that RND pumps capture AMPs from the periplasm or from the periplasm–inner membrane interface, rather than from the cytoplasm. Export from the periplasm of various antibiotics that cannot cross the cytoplasmic membrane has been documented for RND pumps (Aires & Nikaido, 2005). The evidence for involvement of ABC transporters in AMP resistance came from the generation of strains in which the transporter genes were deleted or inactivated. These strains were more susceptible to AMPs than the wild-type strains, as judged by performing survival assays or determining minimum inhibitory concentrations. Screening for S. Typhimurium mutants hyper-susceptible to the AMP protamine led to the identification of the sapABCDF operon coding for the Sap (Sensitive to antimicrobial peptides) ABC importer (Parra-Lopez et al., 1993). In addition to protamine susceptibility, the sap mutants exhibited hypersensitivity to the bee-derived AMP melittin and crude extracts from human neutrophil granules.

Pools were initially screened qualitatively with Roche COBAS Ampl

Pools were initially screened qualitatively with Roche COBAS AmpliScreen HIV-1 Test version 1.5 (Roche Molecular Systems, Branchburg, NJ, USA). Quantitative RNA testing on individual positive specimens was then performed using Roche COBAS Amplicor

HIV-1 version 1.5. All patients with a positive individual quantitative HIV RNA screen underwent antibody testing with HIV EIA [Vironostika HIV-1 Microelisa System (Biomérieux, Durham, NC, USA) or HIV-1 rLAV EIA (Bio-Rad, Richmond, WA, USA) and HIV WB (Bio-Rad). Patients were defined as having acute HIV infection if they had an HIV RNA level >10 000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL with either negative HIV antibody testing or HIV find more EIA positivity with a negative or indeterminate WB [16]. Patients were defined as having chronic HIV infection if they had both positive EIA and WB in the presence of elevated HIV RNA (>5000 copies/mL) [21]; these patients were considered to have ‘false negative’ rapid test results. The highest HIV RNA among chronically selleck products infected patients was reported as >750 000 copies/mL (the upper limit of the assay); this was considered 750 000 copies/mL for the purpose of the analysis. One patient

had a positive qualitative RNA screen but had neither WB nor HIV RNA available and was excluded from further analysis. Within the first month of the study, there were several patients identified via RNA testing with chronic infection and false negative rapid tests results. After the first three false negative rapid test results, the HIV testing protocol in the out-patient department was evaluated. Because the issue initially appeared to involve false else negatives from a single lot of confirmatory test kits (i.e. the second

rapid test performed in series to confirm an initial positive test), that test lot was promptly discarded (SmartCheck). The local Department of Health was notified of the findings and a new confirmatory rapid test kit was adopted (SD Bioline). The counsellors performing the rapid HIV tests were retrained in testing techniques by representatives from one of the HIV test kit manufacturers. Counsellors’ offices were already air-conditioned in an effort to control temperature and humidity for optimal test integrity. During the last 3 months of the study period, when false negatives continued to occur, the hospital adopted a parallel rapid testing algorithm as described above. The main study outcome was the proportion of subjects with acute HIV infection among patients with negative or discordant rapid tests. The second study outcome was the proportion of patients with chronic HIV infection among patients with negative or discordant rapid tests (false negative rapid test). Ninety-five per cent confidence intervals (CIs) around prevalence estimates of acute and chronic HIV infection were calculated using the binomial distribution. We evaluated the performance of rapid HIV tests compared with that of serological tests performed on venipuncture samples.

The detailed description of biological material used in this work

The detailed description of biological material used in this work is given in Supporting Information, Appendix S1. In this way, the species belonging to all main Tuber clades (Bonito et al., 2010), except for Gennadii, Gibbosum and Macrosporum clades, were click here prepared for further analysis. Dry fruit-body material, 5 mg, was first washed in 100% ethanol, dried and extracted by NucleoSpin Plant II DNA extraction kit (Macherey-Nagel GmbH & Co. KG, Düren, Germany) as recommended by the supplier. The material was initially homogenized in 300 μL extraction

buffer PL1 using mortar and pestle pretreated by overnight soaking in 1% hydrochloric acid at room temperature, short washing with distilled water, washing in 10 mM Tris–borate–EDTA (pH 8.3), washing with distilled water and autoclaving for 25 min at 121 °C. The same procedure was used for DNA extraction from ectomycorrhizae, but 100 mg fresh material was homogenized learn more in 400 μL buffer PL1. Extraction of DNA from soil samples (250 mg) was performed using NucleoSpin Soil DNA kit (Macherey-Nagel GmbH & Co. KG) with recommended amounts of the buffer SL1 and enhancer SX. The DNA concentration in final extracts is given in Appendix S1, sheet ‘Primer_specificity’, and was measured at 260 nm using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific, Wilmington, DE). Undiluted extracts were used directly as a template in PCR. The primers were designed on

the basis of comparison of GenBank-published ITS T. aestivum sequences with those belonging to other Tuber Cyclooxygenase (COX) spp. The sequences are listed in Appendix S2. Fifty-one sequences that could not be successfully aligned were excluded. The remaining 130 sequences of T. aestivum (including forma uncinatum as well as 884 sequences of a further 41 Tuber spp.) were included in further analysis. The sequences of each species were aligned in bioedit software, version (Hall, 1999), and consensus sequences were created for each species separately. Where high intraspecific variability was encountered, the sequences of the species were manually

sorted to smaller groups generating separate consensus sequences, or included in further analysis individually. Prepared consensus and individual sequences were aligned (Appendix S3) and the possible motifs that could be recognized by T. aestivum-selective primers were searched for. The selected motifs in aligned sequences of T. aestivum (including forma uncinatum; Appendix S4) were checked to exclude any possible sequence gaps. Denaturation temperature of hybridized primers, melting point of their secondary structure and homodimer stability were checked using DinaMelt tools ( Five negative controls (complex nontarget DNA) were established: A: DNA from composted spruce bark (98 ng μL−1 PCR template). All the negative controls gave strong signals in PCR with nonspecific primers amplifying the eukaryotic ITS region of the rRNA gene cassette.

De novo synthesis of PBP-3 in a directly active form and subseque

De novo synthesis of PBP-3 in a directly active form and subsequent translocation to the periplasm would probably be too slow or lead to undesired side reactions within the cell. GDC-0980 clinical trial The instant control of important balanced physiological processes in nature by activation or deactivation by proteases is very common, as the complex system of human blood clotting illustrates (Walsh & Ahmad, 2002). Evidence for the above hypothesized substrate is strengthened by the fact that P. aeruginosa has two homologous PBP-3 genes,

ftsI and pbpC, which could explain the two CTPs of P. aeruginosa CtpA and Prc which few bacterial species have. A periplasmic localization also supports the evidence of other identified substrates for Prc from E. coli, as the NlpI is anchored in the outer membrane (Wilson et al., 2005), and the role of Prc in the SsrA RNA protein-tagging system, which was shown to be active only in the periplasm and not in the cytoplasm (Keiler et al., 1996). The determination of the subcellular location of CtpA in the periplasm of P. aeruginosa will enable us to investigate further its physiological role and narrows the scope of its function to the periplasm of Gram-negative

bacteria. “
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the probiotic effects of Lactobacillus strains against Vibrio parahaemolyticus causing gastroenteritis. Six-week-old ICR mice were pretreated with four Lactobacillus strains at three dosages, and then challenged with V. parahaemolyticus see more TGqx01 (serotype O3:K6). The results showed that V. parahaemolyticus TGqx01 caused PAK6 severe intestinal fluid

accumulation (FA) and villi damage in control mice which were pretreated with phosphate-buffered saline. In contrast, significant alleviation of FA was seen in mice pretreated by with a high dose of Lactobacillus strains (P < 0.05, n = 6) but not in mice that received low-dose pretreatments. Among middle-dose treatments, two highly adhesive strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus H15 and Lactobacillus brevis Y29-4, significantly decreased intestinal FA and villi damage in treated mice (P < 0.05). Two low-adhesive strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus Y14-3 and Lactobacillus fermentum F16-6, had no significant alleviating effects. At the same dosing levels, no significant differences in FA were observed in mice pretreated with strains with similar adhesive abilities but different antagonistic activities. Our findings suggest that Lactobacillus strains can alleviate V. parahaemolyticus-induced intestinal FA in mice, and the doses required for in vivo efficacy depend more on adhesive ability than on the antibacterial activity of strains. "
“A shuttle expression vector, designated as pAJ, was constructed based on the Haloferax volcanii-Escherichia coli shuttle vector pSY1.

In total, 13 patients (median age 12, ranging from 6 to 29 y) had

In total, 13 patients (median age 12, ranging from 6 to 29 y) had been exposed to schistosomiasis

when repeatedly swimming in the Muhazi Lake for up to 14 days, and presented at a mean time lapse of 78 days (range 54–96 d) from the first day of exposure to the diagnostic workup at our outpatient clinic (Table 2). Of these 13 patients, 4, all asymptomatic, had also been exposed at the same site 2 years prior, and were unaware of having been possibly infected thereafter. The remaining nine patients had been exposed for the first time. Of these, seven developed symptoms compatible with AS. Symptoms appeared at a median period of 55 days (range 25–93 d) from the first day of exposure, and at a median of 6 days (range 3–28 d, n = 6) before the clinical diagnosis was suspected. Reported symptoms included angio-edema (5), urticaria (1), fever (2), cough (4), abdominal pain (4), and diarrhea (3) (Table 1). Biological markers and test results are compiled in Table 2.

All 13 Selleckchem GDC 0068 patients had a significantly elevated eosinophil count (median 2,120 µL−1; range 1,150–14,270). Eggs of S mansoni were found in a concentrated feces sample in 9/13 (69%) patients, all with low egg counts (median 20 eggs per gram; range 10–120). At least one anti-schistosome antibody test (ELISA and/or HAI) was positive in 10/13 (77%) patients. When combined with fecal microscopy results, schistosomiasis was demonstrated in 11/13 (85%) patients. Schistosome-specific DNA was detected in serum by real-time PCR in all 13/13 (100%) exposed persons within the preset maximum of 45 cycles (median Cytidine deaminase Ct value of 30; range 27–36). Five weeks after the first treatment with praziquantel, 12/13 patients presented at a post-treatment visit. Eosinophil count was significantly lower (median 835 µL−1; range 290–1,960 vs median 2,120 µL−1; range 1,150–14,270; n = 12, p < 0.001) and egg count was negative in all five patients who submitted a sample and

in whose feces eggs were detected before treatment. Anti-schistosome antibodies were still undetectable in 3/12 (25%) follow-up samples, while schistosome DNA remained detectable in all 12/12 (100%) cases tested at slightly lower Ct values, although the difference was not statistically significant (median 28.5; range 23–35 vs median 30; range 27–36; n = 12, p = ns) (Table 2). Following treatment with the first single dose of praziquantel, three of the nine patients with primary infection (all three with symptoms of AS before treatment) developed high grade fever (above 38.5°C). Fever subsided promptly after administration of a single dose of 16 mg methylprednisolone given the next day, and did not reappear thereafter. Two patients had only mild and transient abdominal pain that did not require additional treatment. None of the patients experienced any symptoms after the second dose of praziquantel given at the follow-up visit 5 weeks later.

[11, 12] The Chinese study in this issue by Rong MU et al has re

[11, 12] The Chinese study in this issue by Rong MU et al. has revealed poor awareness and deficiency in diagnostic skills amongst doctors including rheumatologists and is a must- read article for all. Some of the points discussed in the preceding paragraphs are realised in this paper. Many rheumatologists who considered themselves non-believers of this vague entity in the recent past, have now turned into believers in view of selleck chemicals emerging evidences cited above. No rheumatologist can afford to make a mistake today in diagnosing or excluding these modern day illnesses. “
“A 72-year-old woman with slight pulmonary interstitial reticular

markings was initially diagnosed with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Two years BIBF 1120 cost later, cavitated pulmonary masses appeared, and a biopsy specimen revealed granulomas. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) was diagnosed. The masses resolved with treatment. Ten years later, the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern appeared on chest computed

tomography (CT). The diagnosis of lung toxicity from methotrexate (MTX) or cyclophosphamide (CYC) was precluded by the clinical course. Despite treatment with prednisolone (PSL), the UIP progressed. The change of pulmonary pathology from masses to UIP is rare in patients with GPA. “
“Polyarteritis nodosa in children is a rare necrotizing vasculitis affecting mainly small and medium-size arteries. To describe the different clinical patterns and laboratory profiles of polyarteritis nodosa patients next in a tertiary care hospital. This was a retrospective cohort study carried out in the Department of Paediatrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period January 2007 to December 2012. A total of 13 patients fulfilling the European League Against Rheumatism/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trial Organization/Paediatric Rheumatology European Society (EULAR/PRINTO/PRES) classification criteria were enrolled in this study. Data was collected

via a predesigned questionnaire. Age range was 3–12 years, male : female ratio was 9 : 4. The duration of symptoms was 2–16 weeks. All the children had fever, anorexia and generalized weakness. Subcutaneous nodules were present in 77% of cases followed by arthritis and rash (69%), muscle pain (54%) and abdominal pain (38%). Impaired peripheral pulses were present in 54%, ulceration and gangrene was present in 31% and auto-amputation was present in 15% of cases. All the patients had high erythrocyte sedimentation rates followed by neutrophilic leukocytosis and thrombocytosis (85% and 62%). Skin biopsy was positive in 77% of cases and angiographic abnormalities were present in 23% of cases.

In notothenioid fish, gene duplications that enhance gene express

In notothenioid fish, gene duplications that enhance gene expression play an important role in adaptation to the Antarctic environments (Chen et al., 2008). As we found a slightly higher copy number of hiC6 in NJ-7 than UTEX259, it would be interesting to isolate more C. vulgaris

strains with a lower freezing tolerance and determine whether the copy number of hiC6 would decrease to one to about three accordingly. We also wondered whether all copies of hiC6 in the tandem array were identically expressed. Because hiC6 genes have almost identical mRNA sequences, their expression can barely be distinguished by Northern blot hybridization. We employed gene-specific primers to perform RT-PCR detections and, in addition, calculated the relative transcript abundance based on sequences of total hiC6 selleck compound cDNAs. Our results showed that the tandem-arrayed genes were differentially expressed in both strains. In NJ-7, almost all hiC6 transcripts were expressed from NJ7hiC6-3, -4 and -5, whereas in UTEX259, hiC6 transcripts were essentially expressed from 259hiC6-1, -3 and -4. Therefore, the formation of the tandem array

of hiC6 does not appear to be a simple process of gene duplications but takes place in combination with gene expression divergence. In an Antarctic green alga species, the nitrate reductase showed a lower maximal temperature compared to that of a temperate find more species (di Rigano et al., 2006). This finding suggests that proteins can be evolved to promote the adaptation to Antarctic environments. We wondered whether amino acid substitutions within HIC6 can enhance the freezing tolerance of C. vulgaris. In vitro assays showed that different HIC6 isoforms

provided similar protection of LDH from inactivation by freeze and thaw. Therefore, compared to changes in gene expression level, accumulation of substitutions to enhance the cryoprotective activities of LEA proteins is probably a much slower process for adaptation to the Antarctic environments. In addition to HIC6 and HIC12, we have very recently identified two novel cold-inducible LEA proteins, Ccor1 and Ccor2, in NJ-7 (Liu et al., 2011). Probably, more LEA Atorvastatin proteins remain to be identified. These proteins may exert cumulative effects on the freezing tolerance of Chlorella. Alternatively, they may be involved in protection of enzymes or membranes of different cellular structures and play independent roles in freezing tolerance. For example, HIC6 seemed to be localized to mitochondria in transgenic plants (Honjoh et al., 2001). Further analyses of these LEA proteins and their encoding genes should be very useful for an in-depth understanding of the development of freezing tolerance in the Antarctic Chlorella. This research was supported by the Key Projects KSCX2-YW-G-060 and KSCX2-SW-332 of Knowledge Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences. “
“A self-subunit swapping chaperone is crucial for cobalt incorporation into nitrile hydratase.

, 2010; Stout, 2010) These findings support long-standing intuit

, 2010; Stout, 2010). These findings support long-standing intuitions regarding the cognitive sophistication of Acheulean technology (e.g. Oakley, BIRB 796 cost 1954; Wynn, 1979; Gowlett, 1986), and specifically highlight the complex hierarchical organization (Holloway, 1969; Stout et al., 2008) of Acheulean action

sequences. This interpretation is further supported by the main effect of stimulus in the anterior inferior parietal and ventral prefrontal cortices across subject groups. Differing responses to stimulus complexity between groups provide insight into the effects of expertise on action observation strategies. Activations specific to Naïve subjects suggest a strategy reliant on kinematic simulation (inferior frontal gyrus) and the top-down direction of visuospatial attention (superior frontal gyrus). This supports an account of early observational learning in which simulation of low-level action elements interacts with representations

of mid-level intentions in action to produce a ‘best-fit’ understanding of complex, unfamiliar actions (cf. Vogt et al., 2007). Interestingly, Trained subjects responded equally to Oldowan and Acheulean stimuli, activating a set of frontal regions related to subjective awareness, visual attention and multi-level action parsing. This unexpected result may reflect a strong motivation to attend to, analyse and understand all Toolmaking stimuli, generated by the

social and pragmatic context of being a ‘learner’ MG-132 solubility dmso (cf. Lave & Wenger, 1991; Stout, 2002). There is increasing awareness of the importance of such social and affective dimensions in understanding human cognitive evolution (Holloway, 1967; Hare & Tomasello, 2005; Burkart et al., 2009; Stout, 2010). Unlike Naive and Trained subjects, Experts recruited a mixture of bottom-up, familiarity-based posterior parietal mechanisms for visuospatial attention (right inferior parietal lobule) and sensorimotor matching (anterior intraparietal sulcus) with high-level inference regarding technological ‘prior intentions’ in the medial frontal cortex. In this context, shared pragmatic skills may provide the foundation for sharing of higher level Amylase intentions, in keeping with the Motor Cognition Hypothesis (Gallese et al., 2009). More broadly, the apparent shift in observation strategy from Naive kinematic simulation to Expert mentalizing is consistent with a ‘mixed’ model of action understanding (Grafton, 2009) involving contextually variable interactions between bottom-up resonance and top-down interpretation. Complex, pragmatic skills like stone toolmaking can only be acquired through deliberate practice (Pelegrin, 1990; Whittaker, 1994) and experimentation (Ericsson et al.

We identified three segments of the carotid arteries on which to

We identified three segments of the carotid arteries on which to conduct the measurements, the common carotid artery (1 cm proximal to the bifurcation), the carotid bulb (in the bifurcation) and the internal carotid artery (1 cm distal to the bifurcation). Far wall CIMT images were obtained and digitalized for each patient [31]. The median value of the measurements obtained in the three segments was used in the

statistical analyses. The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a median CIMT >0.8 mm or the presence of a plaque. A plaque was defined as a thickness >1.5 mm or a focal structure that encroaches into the arterial lumen by at least 0.5 mm, or 50% of the surrounding CIMT value [32]. We used the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact Bortezomib test to evaluate the associations between categorical variables. The κ coefficient was used as

a measure of the agreement between the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis and the CVD risk calculated by the FRS. Means for variables with a normal distribution were compared using analysis of variance (anova) and the Kruskall–Wallis test was used for variables with nonnormal (skewed) distributions. When significant differences among CVD risk groups were found, pair-wise comparisons were performed between the groups representing the three levels of CVD risk. Post hoc analyses included the Bonferroni test. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the variables associated with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis (as a binary variable) in the group of patients with low CVD risk as stratified by FRS (i.e. risk <10%). Variables included in the multivariate

analyses were age, gender, smoking status, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), glucose, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, MTMR9 BMI, HIV-1 basal viral load, basal CD4 cell count, lipodystrophy, exposure time to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and protease inhibitor (PI) treatments, inflammatory markers, and oxidative markers. Statistical analyses were performed with the spss 17.0 statistical package (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). A significant difference was defined as two-tailed P<0.05. We observed a low level of agreement between the stratification of CVD risk measured using the FRS and the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis measured using CIMT (Table 1). Of note is the finding that a high number of patients who did have subclinical atherosclerosis were classified as having a low CVD risk using the FRS score (n=66; 56.4%). Table 2 summarizes the data on the patients stratified into three groups according to the presence of atherosclerosis, but with a low or high CVD risk according to the FRS. The group of patients with a high CVD risk according to the FRS and with atherosclerosis were older (P<0.

In the review process, the lack of classification of the main EPS

In the review process, the lack of classification of the main EPS from B. subtilis was noticed. It is often unclear whether a particular polymer under investigation is produced by all wild-type strains of B. subtilis or is unique to a particular isolate. Several hundred wild-type B. subtilis strains have been collected to date, only some of which have the potential to produce different types of EPS. One caveat in these studies is that strains able to secrete polymeric substances are not genetically characterized and those genetically characterized are defective in EPS production. For example, B. subtilis 168 is the most studied type strain, is used in many laboratories and industrial

processes and is an excellent candidate for genetic studies. It is easy to transform, it grows under planktonic conditions, its genome has been sequenced (Kunst et al., 1997) and its proteome has been characterized (Wolff et al., 2007). Unfortunately, B. subtilis 168 produces only a few antibiotics Gefitinib price and it is defective or attenuated in EPS production (Stein et al., 2004; Aguilar et al., 2007). Several of the biosynthetic pathways are not functional because of the domestication processes (i.e. mutations that allow easier genetic manipulations

coupled with repeated growth under artificial settings). The B. subtilis 168 strain derives from X-ray mutations of the original Marburg strain (Burkholder & Giles, 1947; Chu et al., 2006; Earl et al., 2007). In contrast, AZD9291 order various other B. subtilis wild-type strains produce numerous peptide antibiotics as well as abundant EPS (Stein, 2005). In this review, EPS described are specifically matched with the actual Bacillus strains responsible for its production (Table S1). EPS produced by wild-type B. subtilis strains grown under controlled laboratory conditions Thiamine-diphosphate kinase exhibit a wide range of sizes (with molecular weights ranging from 0.57 to 128 kDa) and chemical compositions (i.e. neutral polysaccharides, charged polymers, amphiphilic molecules and proteins) (Priest, 1977; Lin et al., 1999; Omoike & Chorover, 2004). Fourier-transformed infrared

spectroscopy studies of cell-bound and ‘free’ EPS (in aqueous phase) from B. subtilis ATCC7003 grown in Luria broth showed that the composition of the functional groups of the matrix depends on the cell growth phase (e.g. exponential vs. stationary) (Omoike & Chorover, 2004). Greater amounts of free EPS (relative to cell-bound EPS) are produced during the stationary phase. Quantification of the types of macromolecules within these matrices indicated that proteins and carbohydrates are the major constituents of EPS by mass, with protein levels increasing in free EPS as growth proceeded from the exponential to the stationary phase (Omoike & Chorover, 2004). More detailed investigations are needed to explore differences in the abundance and composition of the proteins, acidic groups and sugars of the biofilms of Bacillus grown under specific conditions.