The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms regulating the anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory activity of Silybin.\n\nMethods: Experiments were performed on HSC isolated from human liver and activated
by culture on plastic.\n\nResults: Silybin was able to inhibit dose-dependently (25-50 mu M) growth factor-induced pro-fibrogenic actions of activated human HSC, including cell proliferation buy Fedratinib (P < 0.001), cell motility (P < 0.001), and de novo synthesis of extracellular matrix components (P < 0.05). Silybin (25-50 mu M), inhibited the IL-1-induced synthesis of MCP-1 (P < 0.01) and IL-8 (P < 0.01) showing a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Silybin exerts its effects by directly inhibiting the ERK, MEK and Raf phosphorylation, reducing the activation of NHE1 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, P < 0.05) and the IkB alpha phosphorylation. In addition, Silybin was confirmed to act as a potent anti-oxidant agent.\n\nConclusion: The results of the study provide molecular insights into the potential therapeutic action of Silybin in chronic liver disease. This action seems to be mostly related to a marked inhibition of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a clear anti-oxidant effect and a reduction of
the direct and indirect pro-fibrogenic potential of HSC. (C) 2009 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Over the past decade, adipose tissue has been shown to produce numerous factors that act as hormones. Many of these act on the brain to regulate energy balance CDK activation via dual effects on food intake and energy expenditure. These include well-characterised hormones such as leptin, oestrogen and glucocorticoids and novel factors such as adiponectin and resistin. This review provides a perspective on the role of these
factors as lipostats.”
“Background. Calcium phosphate (Ca-P), mainly concerning hydroxyapatite (HA), is the main inorganic component of the body’s hard tissue. It is acknowledged that Ca-P biomaterial not only has osteoconduction but also can form bone bonding to host bone, making an ideal tissue-engineering scaffold. However, whether Ca-P biomaterial possesses osteoinductivity is still debated. The Proteasome inhibitor present study was performed to explore the expression level of osteoblast maker genes in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) grown on a Ca-P biomaterial.\n\nMaterials and methods. hMSCs were cultured on the HA/tricalcium phosphate-(TCP) double-phase ceramic. After coculture for 5, 10, 15, or 20 days, the cells were digested for isolation of total RNA. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the relative mRNA levels of Runx2, collagen type 1, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, all of which are the marker genes for osteoblasts. The mg63 cell was recruited as the reference and un-cocultured hMSCs as the negative controls.