For greater

For greater this website accuracy when smear quality is poor, Plasmodium AutoCount, can be used in conjunction with Counting Aid.”
“Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play a vital regulatory role in abiotic stress responses in plants. We isolated the ZmCK1 gene encoding a CDPK from maize seedlings. The predicted ZmCK1 protein contains a typical Ser/Thr protein kinase domain and four EF-hand calcium-binding motifs in its N-terminal and C-terminal halves, respectively. The catalytic and regulatory domains were linked by a well-conserved junction domain. A ZmCK1::hGFP fusion protein was found to localize into the cytoplasma and nucleus upon introduction into Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. ZmCK1 transcription was

highly activated by salt and cold, and moderately by drought and exogenous ABA in maize seedling. Isolation of the ZmCK1 promoter revealed some cis-acting elements responding to stresses. Overexpression of ZmCK1 improved drought, salt, and cold stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Our results suggested that ZmCK1 produces a functional kinase that may play a regulatory role in abiotic stress response.”
“We characterize a mechanism of injury, injury pattern, and treatment algorithm for adductor pollicis myotendinous injuries in 2 professional baseball players.

JQEZ5 research buy Similar to myotendinous eccentric injuries in other anatomical areas, the adductor pollicis sustains a sudden forceful eccentric load during a jammed swing, resulting in intramuscular strain or tendon rupture. Based on the reported injury mechanism, and magnetic resonance imaging features of these myotendinous injuries, the thumb of the top hand during a jammed swing was suddenly and forcefully eccentrically abducted from a contracted and adducted position, resulting in injury patterns. (Copyright (C) 2013 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. All rights reserved.)”
“While transcatheter closure of mitral and aortic paravalvular leaks has been well-described,

there are no prior reports of such procedures for prosthetic tricuspid valves. We describe our experience with percutaneous closure of a tricuspid paravalvular leak in a 34-year-old patient with a history of tricuspid atresia. He had previously undergone repair with placement of a right atrium-to-right ventricle conduit and most recently, placement of a bio-prosthetic tricuspid valve. He subsequently developed significant tricuspid paravalvular leak with symptoms of severe right heart failure. His clinical status was improved following successful transcatheter closure of the defect. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“A rare amyloid precursor protein gene variant, A673T (rs63750847) was recently reported to protect against Alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decline among Icelanders and the same rare variant was observed also in Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish populations.

The ELISA has a detection limit of 8 ng/well (0 08 mg/l) with a w

The ELISA has a detection limit of 8 ng/well (0.08 mg/l) with a working range of 9-1000 ng/well (0.09-10 mg/l). Intra- and interassay coefficient

of variations (CVs) were 6.4% and 9.6%, respectively. Good linearity (r = 0.97-0.99) was recorded in serial dilutions of human arterial and placental crude membrane preparations, and fibroblast lysates. The ELISA measurements for ABCA1 quantification in reference arterial tissues corresponded well with immunoblot analysis. The assay performance and clinical utility was evaluated with arterial tissues obtained from 15 controls and 44 patients buy ASP2215 with atherosclerotic plaques. ABCA1 protein concentrations in tissue lysates were significantly lower in patients (n = 24) as compared with controls

(n = 5; 9.37 +/- 0.82 vs. 17.03 +/- 4.25 mu g/g tissue; P < 0.01). The novel ELISA enables the quantification of ABCA1 protein in human tissues and confirms previous semiquantitative immunoblot results.”
“To quantitatively assess the solubility advantage of amorphous forms of nine insoluble drugs with a wide range of physico-chemical properties utilizing a previously reported thermodynamic approach.\n\nThermal properties of amorphous and crystalline forms of drugs were measured using modulated differential calorimetry. Equilibrium moisture sorption uptake PCI-32765 inhibitor by amorphous drugs was measured by a gravimetric moisture sorption analyzer, and ionization constants were determined from the pH-solubility profiles. Solubilities of crystalline and amorphous forms of drugs were measured in de-ionized water at 25A degrees C. Polarized microscopy was used to provide qualitative information about the crystallization of amorphous drug in solution during solubility measurement.\n\nFor S63845 price three out the nine compounds, the estimated solubility based on thermodynamic considerations was within two-fold of the experimental measurement. For one compound, estimated solubility enhancement was lower than experimental value, likely due to extensive ionization in solution and hence its sensitivity

to error in pKa measurement. For the remaining five compounds, estimated solubility was about 4- to 53-fold higher than experimental results. In all cases where the theoretical solubility estimates were significantly higher, it was observed that the amorphous drug crystallized rapidly during the experimental determination of solubility, thus preventing an accurate experimental assessment of solubility advantage.\n\nIt has been demonstrated that the theoretical approach does provide an accurate estimate of the maximum solubility enhancement by an amorphous drug relative to its crystalline form for structurally diverse insoluble drugs when recrystallization during dissolution is minimal.”
“Nonsymbolic number and its continuous visual properties are confounded in everyday life: When number changes, its continuous visual properties also change.

Fifty-seven patients were randomly assigned to receive PPV with (

Fifty-seven patients were randomly assigned to receive PPV with (n = 28) or without (n = 29) JTT. Unexpectedly,

JTT did not significantly affect cellular or humoral immune responses specific to the vaccine antigens, which were determined by antigen-specific interferon-gamma secretion in T cells and antigen-specific IgG titers in plasma, respectively. Nevertheless, JTT prevented deterioration of patients’ conditions, such as anemia, lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, plasma IL-6 elevation, and reduction of performance status, which are frequently observed in advanced cancers. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical study that examined the immunological and clinical effects of JTT in cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy in humans.”
“A best evidence topic was constructed according TGF-beta inhibitor to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is effective in reducing post-thoracotomy pain. Of the 74 papers found with a report search, nine prospective randomized controlled trials (RCT), among which three were double-blind, presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. All investigated the effect of TENS as an adjunct therapy for relieving acute post-thoracotomy pain in patients

undergoing thoracic surgery. learn more The authors, journal, date and country of publication, study type, group studied, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are given. We conclude that a vast GSK690693 manufacturer majority – seven of the nine retrieved studies – were in favor of TENS as an adjuvant to narcotic analgesics for improving outcome after thoracic surgery. Indeed, the interest and benefit has been shown not only in the treatment of acute post-thoracotomy pain (pain scores and narcotic requirements were consistently lower in the TENS group as opposed to the Placebo-TENS group), but also when used together with narcotic analgesics to reduce the duration

of recovery room stay and to increase chest physical tolerance (better coughing attempts during chest physiotherapy) with positive effects on pulmonary ventilator function [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and/or forced vital capacity (FVC)]. Specifically, the TENS treatment was shown to be ineffective when used alone in severe post-thoracotomy pain (i.e. posterolateral thoracotomy incision), but useful as an adjunct to other medications in moderate post-thoracotomy pain (i.e. muscle sparing thoracotomy incision) and very effective as the sole pain-control treatment in patients experiencing mild post-thoracotomy pain (i.e. video-assisted thoracoscopy incision).

Activation or overexpression of cell surface receptors and up-reg

Activation or overexpression of cell surface receptors and up-regulation of intracellular signaling pathways in hereditary and sporadic MTC are involved in the disease pathogenesis. There has been

an exponential rise in clinical trials with investigational agents, leading to approval of 2 medications for progressive, advanced Combretastatin A4 clinical trial MTC. Developments in understanding the pathogenesis of MTC will hopefully lead to more effective and less toxic treatments of this rare but difficult to treat cancer.”
“Background. Choice of adiposity measure may be important in the evaluation of relationships between adiposity and risk markers for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Aim. We explored the strengths of risk marker associations with BMI, a simple measure of adiposity, and with measures provided by skinfold thicknesses and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects and Methods. We evaluated in three subgroups of white males (n = 156-349), participating in a health screening program, the strengths

of relationship between measures of total and regional adiposity and risk markers relating to blood pressure, lipids and lipoproteins, insulin sensitivity, and subclinical inflammation. Results. Independent of age, smoking, alcohol intake, and exercise, the strongest correlations with adiposity measures were seen with serum triglyceride concentrations and indices of insulin sensitivity, with strengths of association showing little difference between BMI and skinfold and DXA measures of total and percent body fat (R = 0.20-0.46, P smaller than 0.01). Significant but weaker associations with adiposity were seen for serum HDL cholesterol and only relatively inconsistent associations with adiposity for total and LDL cholesterol and indices of subclinical inflammation. Conclusions. BMI can account for variation in risk markers in white males as well as more sophisticated measures derived from skinfold thickness measurements or DXA scanning.”
“Beliefs about other people’s potential views or reactions may be powerful determinants of mental health help-seeking behaviours.

United Kingdom this website Armed Forces (UK AF) have made considerable efforts to promote appropriate help seeking though it is often suggested that military personnel remain reluctant to seek help. This study evaluated a novel stigma-reduction method, stand-up comedy, in service personnel. Personnel viewed a regular comedy show or a show containing mental health information. Pre, immediately post-show and 3 months later, military stigmatisation, potential discrimination, mental health knowledge, help-seeking and coping behaviour, talking about mental health, current mental health and alcohol use were measured. Response rates were 81.3 % pre-show, 67.6 % post-show and 18.9 % at follow-up. Inclusion of mental health material did not appear to detract from show satisfaction.

Among the

members of this prohormone convertase family, N

Among the

members of this prohormone convertase family, Neuroendocrine Convertase-2 (NEC-2) is regarded as one of the important proteins involved in the maturation of many precursor proteins. Being widely distributed in the neuroendocrine cells, these proteins play a vital role in causing malignant gliomas. They can serve as important drug targets in the treatment of cancers. In the present study, a 3D model of NEC-2 was generated using homology modeling. The model was optimized by a brief energy minimization in CHARMM and dynamics simulation of 250ps in MOE. The validation results of PROCHECK and Profile 3D show that the stereochemical quality of the model is good. The C alpha backbone of the template and the target (NEC-2) when superimposed showed RMSD of 0.39

angstrom. The model showed Asp51, His92 and Ser268 in the active site as seen in most of the PC2 members. The NEC-2 structure differs from that of furin at the catalytic pocket region with relevance to the amino acid composition which can be exploited for the design of specific inhibitors towards NEC-2.”
“Purpose: The Raine Eye Health Study (REHS) was conceived to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for eye disease in young adults, and to characterize ocular biometric parameters in a young adult cohort. This article summarizes the rationale and study design of REHS and outlines the baseline prevalence of ophthalmic disease in this population.\n\nMethods: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study originated as a randomized-controlled trial of 2900 women recruited from the state’s largest maternity hospital. Their offspring (N = 2868) have been followed at birth, ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 14, 17 and 20 years of age in a prospective cohort study. DNA has been collected from participants for genome-wide association studies. At the 20-year follow-up participants completed a comprehensive eye assessment that included visual acuity, orthoptic assessment and cycloplegic autorefraction, as well as several ocular biometric variables and multiple ophthalmic photographs of the anterior and posterior segments.\n\nResults: A total of 1344 participants

(51.3% male) were assessed over a 24-month period. For the majority of examined participants (85.5%) both parents were Caucasian, AC220 price 63.3% had completed school year 12 or equivalent, 5.5% had myopia (spherical equivalent <=-3 diopters) and 15 participants (1.2%) had unilateral or bilateral pterygia. Keratoconus, cataract, keratitis and uveitis were rare.\n\nConclusion: The REHS design and methodology allow comparison with other population-based studies of eye disease. The study established the prevalence of eye disorders in a large sample of predominantly Caucasian young Australian adults.”
“Pasteurellosis is one of the most prevalent diseases of sheep, but the involvement of Pasteurellae in genital pathology of rams has been described rarely.

Men seem to be at higher risk for DI than women Scoring system u

Men seem to be at higher risk for DI than women. Scoring system used in this study for prediction of DI may be useful in this patient population.”
“Objective De-identified clinical data in standardized form (eg, diagnosis codes),

derived from electronic medical records, are increasingly combined with research data (eg, DNA sequences) and disseminated to enable scientific investigations. This study examines whether released data can be linked with identified clinical records that are accessible via various resources to jeopardize patients’ anonymity, and the ability of popular privacy protection methodologies to prevent such an attack.\n\nDesign The study experimentally evaluates the re-identification risk of a de-identified sample of Vanderbilt’s patient records involved in a genome-wide association study. It also measures the level of protection EPZ5676 from re-identification, Ro-3306 concentration and data utility, provided by suppression and generalization.\n\nMeasurement Privacy protection is quantified using the probability of re-identifying a patient in a larger population through diagnosis codes. Data utility is measured at a dataset level, using the percentage

of retained information, as well as its description, and at a patient level, using two metrics based on the difference between the distribution of Internal Classification of Disease (ICD) version 9 codes before and after applying privacy protection.\n\nResults More than 96% of 2800 patients’ records are shown to be uniquely identified by their diagnosis codes with respect to a population of 1.2 million patients. Generalization is shown to reduce further the percentage of de-identified records by less than 2%, and over 99% of the three-digit ICD-9 codes need to be suppressed to prevent re-identification.\n\nConclusions Popular privacy protection methods

are inadequate to deliver a sufficiently protected and useful result when sharing data derived from complex clinical systems. The development of alternative privacy protection models is thus required.”
“Hoeger Bement MK, Weyer A, Hartley S, Drewek B, Harkins AL, Hunter SK. Pain perception after isometric exercise in women with fibromyalgia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:89-95.\n\nObjective: The P005091 research buy purpose of this study was to identify exercise protocols incorporating isometric contractions that provide pain relief in women with fibromyalgia.\n\nDesign: A before-after trial.\n\nSetting: A physical therapy department in an academic setting.\n\nParticipants: Fifteen women (mean +/- SD, 52 +/- 11y) with fibromyalgia.\n\nInterventions: Subjects completed 4 sessions: 1 familiarization and 3 experimental. The following randomized experimental sessions involved the performance of isometric contractions with the elbow flexor muscles that varied in intensity and duration: (1) 3 maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), (2) 25% MVC held to task failure, and (3) 25% MVC held for 2 minutes.

Specific emphasis is given to recent research on the production o

Specific emphasis is given to recent research on the production of plant-produced vaccines toward human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, tuberculosis,

hepatitis B virus, Ebola virus, human papillomavirus, rabies virus and common diarrheal diseases. Production platforms used to express vaccines in plants, including nuclear and chloroplast transformation, and the use of viral expression vectors, are described in this Emricasan manufacturer review. The review concludes by outlining the next steps for plant-produced vaccines to achieve their goal of providing safe, efficacious and inexpensive vaccines to the developing world.”
“Espin is a multifunctional actin-bundling protein with multiple isoforms, and has special connections to hair cell stereocilia and microvillar specializations of sensory cells in the inner ear. Selleckchem GDC-941 However, there have been no reports showing the expression and function of Espin in cancers, including melanoma. Here, it is demonstrated that Espin expression is significantly increased in melanomas that spontaneously developed in RET-transgenic mice (RET-mice). Importantly, the invasion capacity of Espin-depleted Mel-ret melanoma cells derived from a tumor of the RET-mouse was dramatically less than that of control melanoma cells with reductions of lamellipodia, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and GTP-Rac1 activities. Correspondingly, the ratio of metastatic selleck inhibitor foci in Espin-depleted

Mel-ret melanoma cells was significantly less than that of control melanoma cells in an in vivo melanoma metastasis model. Moreover, Espin could be a novel biomarker of melanoma in humans, because our immunohistochemical analysis data reveal that percentages of Espin-positive cells in human primary and metastatic melanomas were significantly higher than that of cells in melanocytic nevi. Together, these results indicate that Espin is not only a metastatic regulator for melanoma but also a potential biomarker of disease progression. (C)2013 AACR.”
“Objectives: To assess the impact of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) national coverage determination (NCD) on access for patients

with aortic stenosis (AS) with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in a tertiary care center. Background: TAVR has given hope to patients with AS who are deemed inoperable. The effects of the NCD on access to patients with AS has not been evaluated. Materials and Methods: A total of 94 inoperable AS patients were evaluated and treated from December 2011 through June of 2012 with TAVR. Patients who underwent transfemoral (TF) vs. non-TF access were compared. The CMS NCD was released on May 1, 2012 and on July 1, 2012, the nontransfemoral access program was put on hold due to lack of reimbursement. Results: Patients in the TF (n = 33) and non-TF access (n = 61) groups were similar in age (85.2 +/- 6.3 vs. 84.8 +/- 6.6 P = 0.

Conclusions:The majority of Queensland’s population consi

\n\nConclusions:\n\nThe majority of Queensland’s population consider themselves to have sufficient food supplies to cope with isolation for a period of 3 days. Far fewer would have sufficient find more reserves if they were isolated for a similar period with an interruption in utility services. The lower level of preparedness among health and community service workers has implications for maintaining the continuity of health services.”
“Solid-state NMR provides insight into protein motion over time scales ranging from picoseconds to seconds.

While in solution state the methodology to measure protein dynamics is well established, there is currently no such consensus protocol for measuring dynamics in solids. In this article, we perform a detailed investigation of measurement protocols for fast motions, i.e. motions ranging from picoseconds to a few microseconds, which is the range covered by dipolar coupling and relaxation experiments. We perform a detailed theoretical investigation how dipolar couplings and relaxation data can provide information about amplitudes and time scales of local motion. We show that the measurement of dipolar couplings is crucial for obtaining accurate motional parameters, while systematic errors are found when only relaxation

data are used. Based on this realization, we investigate how the GW4869 ic50 REDOR experiment can provide such data in a very accurate manner. Fosbretabulin in vitro We identify that with accurate rf calibration, and explicit consideration of rf field inhomogeneities, one can obtain highly accurate absolute order parameters. We then perform joint model-free analyses of 6 relaxation data sets and dipolar couplings, based on previously existing, as well as new data sets on microcrystalline ubiquitin. We show that nanosecond motion can be detected primarily in loop regions, and compare solid-state data to solution-state relaxation and RDC analyses. The protocols investigated here will serve as

a useful basis towards the establishment of a routine protocol for the characterization of ps-mu s motions in proteins by solid-state NMR.”
“Ligament graft failure frequently results from poor integration of the replacement tissue with associated bone. Thus, the ability to regenerate the bone-ligament osteochondral interface would be advantageous in ligament reconstruction. At the osteochondral interface, the tissue transitions from a bone-like matrix to fibrocartilage. Therefore, a scaffold which promotes a spatially regulated transition in cell behavior from osteoblast-like to chondrocyte-like would be desirable. Previous research indicates that addition of inorganic components to organic scaffolds can enhance the deposition of bone-like matrix by associated osteoblasts.

Main outcome measures were mortality and major and minor morbidit

Main outcome measures were mortality and major and minor morbidities.\n\nResults Of the 6,314 (97 %) who underwent PD and the 198 (3 %) who underwent TP, malignancy was present in 84 % of patients. The two groups were comparable at baseline. Mortality was higher after TP (6.1%) than DP (3.1%), p = 0.02. Adjusting SCH727965 in vivo for differences on multivariable analysis, TP carried increased mortality (OR 2.64, 95 % CI 1.3-5.2, p = 0.005). TP was also associated with increased

rates of majormorbidity (38 vs. 30%, p = 0.02) and blood transfusion (16 vs. 10%, p = 0.01). Infectious and septic complications occurred equally in both groups.\n\nConclusion Themorbidity of a pancreatic fistula can be eliminated by TP. However, based on our findings, TP is associated with increased major morbidity and mortality. TP

cannot be routinely recommended for to reduce perioperative morbidity when pancreaticoduodenectomy is an appropriate surgical option.”
“The effects of occlusive portal vein thrombosis (PVT) on the survival of patients with cirrhosis are unknown. This was a retrospective cohort study at a single center. The main exposure variable was the presence of occlusive PVT. The primary outcome measure was time-dependent mortality. A total of 3295 patients were analyzed, and 148 (4.5%) had PVT. Variables independently predictive of mortality from the time of liver transplant evaluation included age [hazard ratio (HR), 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.03], Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.08-1.11), hepatitis

C (HR, 1.44; 95% ARRY-470 CI, 1.24-1.68), and PVT (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.97-3.51). Variables independently associated with the risk of mortality from the time of liver transplant listing included age (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), transplantation (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50-0.81), MELD (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.10), hepatitis C (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.90), and PVT (1.99; 95% CI, 1.25-3.16). The presence of occlusive PVT at the time of liver transplantation was associated with an increased risk of death at 30 days (odds ratio, 7.39; 95% CI, 2.39-22.83). In conclusion, patients with cirrhosis complicated by PVT have an increased risk of death. Liver Transpl 16:83-90, 2010. (c) 2009 AASLD.”
“Spontaneous emission and optical gain characteristics Z-IETD-FMK datasheet of blue InGaAlN/InGaN quantum well (QW) structures with reduced internal field were investigated by using the non-Markovian model with many-body effects. The spontaneous emission coefficient of the InGaAlN/InGaN system with reduced internal field is shown to be increased by 30% compared to that of the conventional InGaN/GaN system. This is mainly due to the increase in the optical matrix element by the reduced internal field effect. If the threshold optical gain is assumed to be about 13 000 cm(-1), the InGaAlN/InGaN QW structure is expected to have smaller threshold current density the InGaN/GaN QW structure.

Consulted sources, ranging from 1970 to 2010, included MEDLINE, E

Consulted sources, ranging from 1970 to 2010, included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, DARE, and the Cochrane controlled S63845 mw trials register (CENTRAL). In order to formulate the recommendations of the

selected studies the SIGN system was used. The first draft was analysed and discussed by clinical experts, methodologists and patients representatives on a two days consensus meeting. The resulting document went through an external review process by a panel of experts, other health care professionals, patient representatives and lay reviewers. The final document was piloted in three different centres in United Kingdom, Czech Republic and Argentina. Results. The guideline is composed of 93 recommendations divided into 3 main areas: 1) Oral Care – access issues, early referral, preventative strategies, management of microstomia, prescriptions and review appointments-, 2) Dental treatment: general treatment modifications, radiographs, restorations, endodontics, oral rehabilitation, periodontal treatment, oral surgery and orthodontics-,

and 3) Anaesthetic management of dental treatment. Conclusions. A preventive protocol is today’s dental management approach of choice.”
“The ubiquitin-modification status of proteins in cells is highly dynamic and maintained by specific ligation machineries (E3 ligases) that tag proteins with ubiquitin or by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) that remove the ubiquitin tag. The development of tools that offset this balance is critical in characterizing signaling pathways that utilize such ubiquitination switches. Herein, we generated a DUB-resistant ubiquitin mutant that is recalcitrant to cleavage by various families of DUBs both in vitro and in mammalian cells. As a proof-of-principle experiment, ectopic expression of the uncleavable ubiquitin stabilized monoubiquitinated PCNA in the absence of DNA damage and also revealed a defect in the clearance of the DNA damage FK228 concentration response at unprotected telomeres. Importantly, a proteomic survey using the

uncleavable ubiquitin identified ubiquitinated substrates, validating the DUB-resistant ubiquitin expression system as a valuable tool for interrogating cell signaling pathways.”
“Recently, calcyclin-binding protein or Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP), a component of a novel ubiquitinylation pathway, could regulate the -catenin degradation (Fukushima et al., Immunity 2006, 24, 29 – 39). However, the potential role of CacyBP/SIP itself in human glioma cells has not been clarified. Here, we found that CacyBP/SIP was expressed highly in human glioma tissues. Silencing of CacyBP/SIP by short-hairpin RNA severely suppressed the proliferation of human glioma cell U251, which was at least partly mediated by downregulation of phospho-Akt (p-Akt) and phospho–catenin (p–catenin) as well as upregulation of p53 and p21.