bassiana s.s. , including insect isolates only. Interestingly, three phylogenetic subgroups (Eu-7, Eu-8 and Eu-9) were only formed by isolates from Spanish and Portuguese isolates. However, most of the isolates in our collection (39 out of 56) were grouped with isolates
from Romania and the USA in the world-wide phylogenetic subgroup Wd-2, which includes isolates from Europe, Africa and North America . When the different intron insertion patterns were mapped on the B. bassiana EF1-α phylogeny (Figure 2), the existence of a same intron genotype in a given phylogenetic subgroup could be indicative of its clonal origin as it is the case of Eu-7 and Eu-8. Previous studies have shown LY411575 that Eu-3, where Bb38 is located, is a clonal group . Isolate Bb51 was the only member of Eu-9 selleck chemicals and the separated phylogenetic grouping of this isolate is supported by a characteristic intron insertion pattern and the production of statistically significant smaller conidia than those from any other intron genotype (data not shown). The two different intron genotypes EPZ-6438 observed among the isolates from the complex phylogenetic subgroup Wd-2, may indicate that homologous recombination is involved in the IE intron loss at position 1. Previous studies have shown frequent intron losses of group I introns
in the nuclear rDNAs of Cordyceps . Recently, a low frequency of sexual reproduction was observed in Eu-1 ; this could also be the case of Wd-2 where the absence of an IE intron at position 1 was only observed in 6 out of 39 isolates of this phylogenetic subgroup. The genetic diversity of Spanish B. many bassiana s.s. isolates was compared in relation to their hosts and geographical provenance and according to the latter view , no general correlation can be observed between the molecular variability among isolates and host and/or geographical origin. Although most of the isolates in our study were collected from soil, 8 out of 9 isolates from insects were grouped together in the subgroup Wd-2 although
they derived from different insect orders. Phylogenetic subgroups only indicated a tenuous dependence upon geographic origin (i.e., Bb2-5 located in Eu-7 or Bb23-26 and Bb29-31 located in Wd-2). A recent phylogeographic report  has provided evidence that the genetic distance of Brazilian B. bassiana isolates correlates with geographical distance, suggesting that according to Rehner’s study  allopatry plays an important role in the phylogenetic diversification of B. bassiana. The authors of another recent study  concluded that multiple phylogenetic species of B. bassiana s.s. co-exist in sympatry within the limited natural habitat of a bordering hedgerow. We observed that isolates sampled in close locations were placed in different phylogenetic subgroups (i.e.