(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Documentation of several non-motor deficits in Parkinson’s disease (PD) years prior to the onset of clinical motor symptoms has facilitated the exploration of several models to better understand the pre-motor features of the

find more disease. Reports of aversion deficits in early stages of PD have led to the current study focused on neural and behavioral responses to aversion in a rat model of pre-motor PD. To gain insight into the pre-motor stage of PD, rats were administered low dosages of 6-hydroxydopamine in a step-wise manner and assessed at three weeks post the final treatment with behavioral and imaging measures. The pre-motor PD rats exhibited lower arousal and less avoidance behavior in the presence of an aversive odor. These results could not be attributed to selective hyposmia since the PD rats did not exhibit any deficit In the exploration Selleck PLX 4720 of the odor. The imaging studies showed that the PD group had

similar blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation in the olfactory regions, insular cortex and medial nucleus of amygdala as compared to the control and the sham lesioned groups, and significantly higher BOLD activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However significantly lower BOLD activation was observed in the basal, lateral and central nucleus of the amygdala in the PD group compared to sham and control animals. Taken together, our results

suggest that aversion deficits in the pre-motor stages of the disease maybe a result of inappropriate response generation due to cortico-amygdalar dysfunction. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.”
“Synchronous and intermittent plant reproduction has been identified widely in diverse biomes. While synchronous flowering is normally observed within the same species, different species also flower in synchrony. A well-known example of interspecific synchrony is “”general flowering”" in tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia. Environmental factors, such as low temperature and drought, have been considered as major trigger of general flowering. However, environmental cues are not enough to explain general flowering because some trees do not flower SPTLC1 even when they encounter favorable environmental cues. We propose alternative explanation of general flowering: “”pollinator coupling”". When species flower synchronously, the elevated pollen and nectar resource may attract increased numbers of generalist pollinators, with a concomitant enhancement of pollination success (facilitation). However, under these circumstances, plants of different species may compete with one another for limited pollinator services, resulting in declines in pollination success for individual species (competition).

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