62 Evidence for active regional regulation against an autoimmune

62 Evidence for active regional regulation against an autoimmune response to these antigens has been obtained in the study of mice that have undergone thymectomy within 3 days of birth.63 In certain strains, neonatal thymectomy leads to the development of orchitis. Regulatory T lymphocytes have been identified within the interstitium of the testes in these animals,64 and autoimmune orchitis can be prevented by infusion of normal T cells. T cells

are also present within seminal fluid and gain entry of the female reproductive tract at coitus.42 It has been speculated that these cells could play roles in altering the female reproductive tract response to spermatozoa. Proteasomal inhibitors These same cell-medicated immune perturbations might play roles in the pathogenesis of HIV transmission. Evidence has accumulated of the complexity of seminal fluid,

its components that perturb the female reproductive tract, altering its ability to mount an immune response against spermatozoa (foreign invading cells of another individual), and facilitating the implantation of embryos within the endometrium. These same factors that promote the establishment of pregnancy, however, may also make the female reproductive tract susceptible to invasion not only by spermatozoa but viruses, playing a significant role in the male-to-female transmission of HIV. An understanding of the histology, anatomy, and immunology of the male reproductive tract is essential in understanding its role in Amino acid the pathogenesis of HIV. “
“The molecular mechanisms that underlie poor birth outcomes in malaria during pregnancy remain poorly defined. To assess the role of host immune responses, mice known selleck kinase inhibitor to respond differentially

to Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection were studied. Following infection at day 0 of pregnancy, A/J mice developed significantly higher parasitemia than C57BL/6 (B6) mice and succumbed to infection. Both strains had evidence of parasite accumulation in the placenta at mid-gestation and aborted, with significantly higher embryo loss in infected A/J mice on day 9. While infection-induced systemic tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1β in the latter were significantly higher at day 11, day 10 IL-10 levels were higher in B6 mice. No differences in the levels of splenic lymphocyte subsets, neutrophils or monocytes between infected pregnant A/J and B6 mice were observed, with most cell types expanding in response to infection regardless of pregnancy. Antibody ablation of TNF exacerbated infection in A/J mice and did not ameliorate pregnancy outcome. Thus, malaria induces poor pregnancy outcome in both the mouse strains in the context of quantitatively different systemic inflammatory responses. Further evaluation of the roles of soluble and cellular immune components, particularly at the uteroplacental level, will be required to define the most critical pregnancy-compromising mechanisms.

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