Despite the lesion to the right ‘OFA’, there was normal range of

Despite the lesion to the right ‘OFA’, there was normal range of sensitivity to faces in the right “”fusiform face area”" (‘FFA’) in both patients, supporting a non-hierarchical model of face processing at the cortical level. At the same time, however, sensitivity to individual face representations, as indicated by release from adaptation to identity, was abnormal in the right ‘FFA’ of both patients. This suggests that the right ‘OFA’ is necessary to individualize faces, perhaps through reentrant interactions with other cortical face sensitive areas. The lateral occipital area (LO) is damaged bilaterally in C59 patient DF, who also shows visual object agnosia.

However, in patient PS, in whom LO was spared, sensitivity to individual representations of non-face objects was still found in this region, as in the normal brain, consistent with her preserved object recognition abilities. Taken together, these observations, which fruitfully combine functional imaging and neuropsychology. place strong constraints on the possible functional organization of the cortical areas mediating face processing in the human brain. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A small group of ecotropic murine retroviruses cause a spongiform neurodegenerative disease manifested by tremor, paralysis, and wasting. The neurovirulence PD173074 concentration of these

viruses has long been known to be determined by the sequence of the viral envelope protein, although the nature of the neurotoxicity remains to be clarified. Studies on the neurovirulent viruses FrCas(NC) and Moloney murine leukemia virus ts1 indicate that the nascent envelope protein misfolds, is

retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and induces an unfolded protein response. In the present study we constructed a series of viruses with chimeric envelope genes containing segments from virulent and avirulent retroviruses. Each of the viruses studied was highly neuroinvasive but differed in the severity of the neurological most disease they induced. Only viruses that contained the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the neurovirulent virus induced neurological disease. Likewise, only viruses containing the RBD of the neurovirulent virus exhibited increased binding of the ER chaperone BiP to the envelope precursor protein and induced the unfolded protein response. Thus, the RBD determined both neurovirulence and folding instability. Among viruses carrying the neurovirulent RBD, the severity of the disease was increased when envelope sequences from the neurovirulent virus outside the RBD were also present. Interestingly, these sequences appeared to further increase the degree of folding instability (BiP binding) of the viral envelope protein.

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